Friday, April 25, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 2 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 2 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 2 by Longman)

1. The hard palate forms a partition  ____ and nasal passages.
(A) the mouth
(B) between the mouth
(C) is between the mouth
(D) it is between the mouth
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan verb sudah lengkap sehingga kita tidak butuh lagi verb atau pun subject lainnya jika tidak terdapat connector. Pilihan C dan D terdapat verb tanpa connector, jadi otomatis sudah salah. Jawaban yang paling tepat ialah B.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun seterusnya.

2. Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon and Rick Blaine in Casablanca ____  of Humphrey Bogart's more famous roles.
(A) they are two
(B) two of them are
(C) two of them
(D) are two
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat subject tapi kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb. Jawaban yang terdapat verb ialah A, B, dan D; pilihan C sudah jelas salah. Pilihan A dan B kemudian salah karena terdapat lagi subject. Jadi jawaban paling tepat ialah D.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun seterusnya.

3. ____, the outermost layer of skin, is about as thick as a sheet of paper over most of the skin.
(A) It is the epidermis
(B) In the epidermis
(C) The epidermis
(D) The epidermis is
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat verb (is) tapi kehilangan subject jadi kita butuh subject. Jawaban yang terdapat subject ialah A, C, dan D; pilihan B sudah jelas salah karena terdapat preposition (in) yang menandakan the epedermis bukanlah subject. Pilihan A dan D kemudian salah karena terdapat lagi verb di dalamnya. Jadi jawaban paling tepat ialah C.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun seterusnya.
--> "the outermost layer of skin" bukanlah subject kalimat melainkan penjelas dari suject sebelumnya. Penjelas semacam ini biasa disebut dg nama "appositive"

4. During the Precambrian period, the Earth's crust formed, and life ____  in the seas.
(A) first appeared
(B) first to appear
(C) is first appearing
(D) appearing
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (and): clause 1 (the Earth's crust formed), dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (life). Olehnya kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Secara structure, yang memungkinkan ialah pilihan A dan C. Hanya dilihat dari tense (waktu) dan makna maka yang sangat sesuai ialah pilihan A.

5. When fluid accumulates against the eardrum, a second more insidious type of ____
(A) otitis media may develop
(B) developing otitis media
(C) the development of otitis media
(D) to develop otitis media
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (when): clause 1 (fluid accumulates), dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (a second more insidious type). Olehnya kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Hanya pilihan A yang memenuhi syarat.

6. Before the Statue of Liberty arrived in the United States, newspapers invited the public to help determine where ____ placed after its arrival.
(A) should the statue be
(B) the statue being
(C) it should be the statue
(D) the statue should be
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat 3 clause yang ditandai adanya 2 connector (before) dan connector (where): clause 1 (the Statue of Liberty arrived), clause 2 (newspapers invited), dan clause ke 3 kehilangan subject dan helping verb, hanya terlihat past participle (placed). Olehnya kita butuh subject dan helping verb untuk melengkapi clause 3. Hanya pilihan A yang memenuhi syarat.
Helping verb: be (is, are, am, be, been), modals (can, could, must, dll), have (have, has, had), do (do, does, did)

7. A stock ____ at an inflated price is called a watered stock.
(A) issued 
(B) is issued 
(C) it is issued 
(D) which issued
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat kalimat diatas terdapat 1 clause yang lengkap: subject (A stock) dan verb (is called). Jadi kita tidak membutuhkan lagi subject atau pun verb lainnya kecuali jika terdapat connector. Pilihan B dan C terdapat verb namun tidak disertai dengan connector sehingga salah. Pilihan D terdapat connector tapi tidak terdapat verb, hanya terlihat past participle (issued) yang butuh helping verb. Sehingga pilihan yang tepat ialah pilihan A. 

8. Acidic lava flows readily and tends to cover much larger areas, while basic lava ____.
(A) viscous
(B) is more viscous
(C) more viscous
(D) it is more vicious
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (while): clause 1 (Acidic lava flows readily and tends), dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (basic lava ). Olehnya kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Pilihan A dan C sudah jelas salah karena tidak terdapat verb. Pilihan D salah karena terdapat subject lagi (double subject). Jadi pilihan paling tepat ialah pilihan B.

9. Seismic reflections profiling has ____ the ocean floor is underlain by a thin layer of nearly transparent sediments.
(A) reveal that
(B) revealed that
(C) the revelation of
(D) revealed about
Pembahasan Jawaban:

10. ____ and terrifying, coral snakes can grow to 4 feet (1.2 meters) in length.
(A) They are extremely poisonous
(B) The poison is extreme
(C) Extremely Poisonous
(D) An extreme amount of poison
Pembahasan Jawaban:

11. The leaves of the white mulberry provide food for silkworms, ____ silk fabrics are woven.
(A) whose cocoons 
(B) from cocoons 
(C) whose cocoons are from 
(D) from whose cocoons
Pembahasan Jawaban:

12. As ____ in Greek and Roman mythology, harpies were frightful monsters that were half woman and half bird.
(A) described
(B) to describe
(C) description
(D) describing
Pembahasan Jawaban:

13. Not only ____ generate energy, but it also produces fuel for other fission reactors.
(A) a nuclear breeder reactor 
(B) it is a nuclear breeder reactor 
(C) does a nuclear breeder reactor 
(D) is a nuclear breeder reactor
Pembahasan Jawaban

14. D.W. Griffith pioneered many of the stylistic features and filmmaking techniques ____ as the Hollywood standard.
(A) that established 
(B) that became established 
(C) what established 
(D) what became established 
Pembahasan Jawaban:

15. _____ be needed, the water basin would need to be dammed.
(A) Hydroelectric power should
(B) When hydroelectric power
(C) Hydroelectric power
(D) Should hydroelectric power
Pembahasan Jawaban

[Continue reading...]

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 2 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 2 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 2 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

16. Mosquitoes will accepts the malaria parasite at only one stage of the parasite's complex life cycle.
Pembahasan Jawaban: accepts --> accept
Modal + Verb 1 murni tanpa embel-embel

17. The counterpart of a negative electrons is the positive proton.
Pembahasan Jawaban: electrons --> electron
Terdapat preposition (a) yang mendandakan electron tunggal

18. Alexander Hamilton's advocacy of a strong national government brought he into bitter conflict Thomas Jefferson.
Pembahasan Jawaban: he --> him
Verb + object: object dari he ialah him

19.There are more than eighty-four million specimens in the National Museum of Natural History's collection of biological, geological, archaeological, and anthropology treasures.
Pembahasan Jawaban: anthropology (noun)  --> anthropological (adjective)
Parallel Structure: biological (adjective), geological (adjective), archaeological (adjective), and anthropological (adjective)

20. After George Washington married widow Martha Custis, the couple comes to reside at Mount Vernon.
Pembahasan Jawaban: comes --> came
Bentuk kalimat di atas adalah lampau (past). Dapat diketahui dari phrase "After George Washington married widow Martha Custis"

21. At this stage in their development, rubberized asphalt can hardly be classified as cutting edge.
Pembahasan Jawaban: their --> its
Pronoun Reference: its kembali ke kata asphalt

22. Rhesus monkeys exhibit patterns of shyness similar to that in humans.
Pembahasan Jawaban: that (singular) --> those (plural)
Comparative Degree: Yang dibandingkan ialah patterns (plural).

23. In space, with no gravity for muscles to work against, the body becomes weakly.
Pembahasan Jawaban: weakly --> weak
Become + adjective. Contoh lain dari kata kerja befungsi sama dengan become ialah seem, look, dan lain-lain.

24. Fort Jefferson, in the Dry Tortugas off the southern tip to Florida, can be reach only by boat or plane.
Pembahasan Jawaban: reach --> reached
Modal + be + Verb III

25. Quarter horses were developed in the eighteenth-century Virginia to race on courses short of about a quarter of a mile in length.
Pembahasan Jawaban: courses short --> short courses
Noun Phrase: Adjetive + Noun jangan dibalik

26. Supersonic flight is flight that is faster the speed of sound.
Pembahasan Jawaban: faster --> faster than
Comparative Degree

27. Since the dawn of agriculture 9,000 years ago, only a few animal species had been domesticated.
Pembahasan Jawaban: had been --> have been
Tense: Waktu yang dimaksud ialah sampai sekarang.

28. The Betataken House Ruins at Navajo National Monument is among the largest and most elaborate cliff dwellings in the country
Pembahasan Jawaban: is (singular) --> are (plural)
Subject dari kalimat ialah The Betataken House Ruins berbentuk plural, jadi butuh verb yang berbentuk plural pula.

29. The island of Kauai has much streams, some of which have worn deep canyons into the rock.
Pembahasan Jawaban: much --> many
Much + uncountable noun (tidak ada tambahan -s)
Many + countable noun (terdapat tambahan -s sebagai bentul plural)

30. It is a common observation that liquids will soak through some materials but not through other.
Pembahasan Jawaban: other --> others
other kembali ke other materials (plural)

31. Surrounded by forested mountain slopes are the town of Telluride, a former gold-mining town 7,500 feet about sea level.
Pembahasan Jawaban: slopes are --> slopes is
Inversion: Subject dari kalimat ialah the town of Telluride yang berbentuk singular jadi butuh verb yang singular pula

32. The newsreels of Hearst Metronome News, which formed part of every moviegoer's experience in the era before television, offer an unique record of the events of the 1930s. 
Pembahasan Jawaban: an unique --> a unique
It should be very easy :)

33. Probably the best known of all dinosaurs, the Tyrannosaurus was larger and last of the meat-eating carnosaurs.
Pembahasan Jawaban: larger --> the largest 
Superlative Degree: Perbandingan lebih dari 2 hal.

34. Unlikely gas sport balloons, hot air balloons do not have nets
Pembahasan Jawaban: unlikely --> unlike
Unlike berfungsi sebagai adverb

35. Born in Massachusetts in 1852, Albert Farbanks has begun making banjos in Boston in the late 1870s.
Pembahasan Jawaban: has begun (present) --> began (past)
Tense: in the late 1870s menandakan kalimat di atas berbentu lampau (past)

36. Methane in wetlands comes from soil bacteria that consumes organic plant matter.
Pembahasan Jawaban: consumes --> consume 
Bacteria ialah bentuk plural dari bacterium

37. Alois Alzheimer made the first observers of the telltale signs of the disease that today bears his name
Pembahasan Jawaban: observers --> observation
Pemilihan kata: yang dimaksud adalah observasi bukan obserever

38. Edward MacDowell remembers as the composer of such perennial favorites as "To a Wild Rose" and "To a Water Lily."
Pembahasan Jawaban: remembers --> is remembered
Edward MacDowell is remembered (dikenang / dikenal)

39. Animism is the belief that objects and natural phenomena such as rivers, rocks, and wind are live and have feelings
Pembahasan Jawaban: are live --> are alive
are + adjective (alive) bukan verb (live)

40. Newtonian physics accounts from the observation of the orbits of the planets and the moons. 
Pembahasan Jawaban: from --> for
Pasangan Phrase: accounts + for 
[Continue reading...]

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

16. Light can travels from the Sun to the Earth in eight minutes and twenty seconds.
Pembahasan Jawaban: travels --> travel
Modal + Verb 1 murni tanpa embel-embel: Modal (can) + verb 1 (travel)

17. Every human typically have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in most cells.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have --> has
Subject Verb Agreement: every termasuk dalam kategori singular. Jadi butuh verb yang singular (has).

18. Most sedimentary rocks start forming when grains of clay, silt, or sandy settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans.
Pembahasan Jawaban: sandy (adjective) --> sand (noun)
Parallel Structure: noun, noun, noun --> clay (noun ), salt (noun), sand (noun)

19. The total thickness of the ventricular walls of the heart are about three times that of the atria.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is
Subject Verb Agreement: Singular Subject (thickness) + Singular Verb (is)

20. The type of jazz known as "swing" was introduced by Duke Ellington when he wrote and records "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing."
Pembahasan Jawaban: records (verb 1 + s) --> recorded (Verb 2)
Parallel Structure (tense): wrote (verb 2) + recorded (verb 2)
- Verb 2 = past tense (lampau)
- Verb 1 = prsent tense (sekarang)

21. The bones of mammals, not alike those of other vertebrates, show a high degree of differentiation.
Pembahasan Jawaban: not like --> unlike
alike digunakan pada akhir kalimat / klausa

22. The neocortex has evolved more recently then other layers of the brain.
Pembahasan Jawaban: then --> than
Comparative Degree: more + than bukan more + then 

23. The United States receives a large amount of revenue from taxation of a tobacco products.
Pembahasan Jawaban: of a --> of
perhatikan kata products, terdapat s yang menandakan plural (lebih dari 1 produk).

24. Much fats are composed of one molecule of glycerin combined with three molecules of fatty acids.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Much --> many
Much + uncountable noun (tanpa tambahan -s)
many + countable noun (plural)

25. The capital of the Confederacy was originally in Mobile, but they were moved to Richmond.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> it was
Pronoun reference: they (plural) seharusnya it (singular) kembali ke subject kalimat yang singular (the capital)

26. A pearl develops when a tiny grain of sand or stone or some another irritant accidentally enters into the shell of a pearl oyster.
Pembahasan Jawaban: another --> other
some + other

27. The English horn is an alto oboe with a pitch one-fifth lower than the soprano oboe.
the --> that of
Comparison degree: yang dibandingkan ialah "a pitch one-fifth" bukan alto & oboe.

28. In the Milky Way galaxy, the most recent observed supernova appeared in 1604.
Pembahasan Jawaban: recent --> recently
Adverb + adjective + noun: recently (adverb) + observed (adjective) + supernova (noun)

29. Never in the history of humanity has there been more people living on this relatively small planet.
Pembahasan Jawaban: has (singular) --> have (plural)
Kalimat di ats merupakan kalimat inversion (pembalikan: V + S); ditandai adanya negartive expression (never) di awal kalimat. Subejct kalimat ialah people (plural).

30. Because of the mobility of Americans today, it is difficult for they to put down real roots.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> them
they digunakan sebagai subject sementara them sebagai object. dalam kalimat di atas them digunakn sebagai objetc dari preposition (for).

31. For five years after the Civil War, Robert E. Lee served to president of Washington College, which was later called Washington and Lee.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to --> as
Pasangan phrase: served + as

32. The number of wild horses on Assateague is increasing lately, resulting in overgrazed marsh and dune grasses.
Pembahasan Jawaban: is --> have been
Subject Verb Agreement: The number (plural) + have been (plural)

33. Hypnoses was successfully used during World War II to treat battle fatigue.
Pembahasan Jawaban: hypnoses (plural) --> hypnosis (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: Verb kalimat di atas berbentuk singular (was) jadi kita butuh subject yang singular (hypnosis)

34. The lobster, like many crustaceans, can cast off a damaging appendage and regenerate a new appendage to nearly normal size.
Pembahasan Jawaban: damaging (yang merusak) --> damaged (yang rusak)

35. Humans develop normally twenty primary, or deciduous, teeth and thirty-two permanent ones.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop normally --> normally develop
Verb + object: tidak boleh ada perantara antara verb dan object

36. The curricula of American public schools are set in individual states; they do not determine by the federal government.
Pembahasan Jawaban: do no determine (tidak memutuskan) --> are not determined (tidak diputuskan)
they kembali mengarah ke curricula (kurikulum)

37. The fact that the sophisticated technology has become part of revolution in travel delivery systems has not made travel schedules less hectic.
Pembahasan Jawaban: revolution --> a  revolution
uncountable noun tidak boleh berdiri sendiri tanpa adanya penjelas (termasuk article a, an, the) apakah noun itu tunggal atau jamak.

38. Balanchine's plotless ballets, such Jewels and The Four Temperaments, present dance purely as a celebration of the movement of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such --> such as (contohnya)

39. In a solar battery, a photosensitive semiconducting substance such as silicon crystal is the source of electrician.
Pembahasan Jawaban: electrician --> electricity
Dair konteks kalimat yang di maksud adalah listriknya bukan orangnya (electrician).

40. In early days, hydrochloric acid was done by heating a mixture of sodium chloride with iron sulfate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: done (dikerjakan) --> made (dibuat / dihasilkan)

[Continue reading...]

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

1. _______ range in color from pale yellow to
bright orange.
(A) Canaries which
(B) Canaries
(C) That canaries
(D) Canaries that are
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas butuh subject. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya B yang memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat Subject dan Verb: Canaries (subject) + range (verb)

2. _______ of precious gems is determined by their hardness, color, and brilliance.
(A) The valuable
(B) It is the value
(C) It is valuable
(D) The value
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kata kerja (is determined) sudah ada. Jadi kita hanya mencari subject kalimat. Hanya pilihan jawaban D yang bisa menjadi subject.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat Subject dan Verb

3. _______ a tornado spins in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, it spins in the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere.
(A) However
(B) Because of
(C) Although
(D) That
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat dua klausa (S + V): a tornado spins & it spins. Jadi kita butuh connector untuk menghubungkan ke dua klausa. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya C yang memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: 2 clause butuh 1 connector. 3 clause butuh dua connector. 

4. The Caldecott Medal, _______ for the best children's picture book, is awarded each January.
(A) a prize
(B) which prize
(C) is a prize which
(D) is a prize
Pembahasan Jawaban: 
Cara 1: Kalimat di atas terdapat subject (The Caldecott Medal) dan verb (is awarded), ini berarti kalimat sudah lengkap. Kita sudah tidak butuh lagi kata kerja. Otomatis pilihan pilihan C dan D sudah tereliminasi. Pilihan B juga ikut tereliminasi. Kalimat di atas cuma terdiri dari 1 clause jadi tidak butuh connector (which). Jadi pilihan jawaban benar ialah A.
Cara 2: Materi Appositive. Appositive ialah noun yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (dalam TOEFL umumnya subject). Jadi kita cuma butuh noun untuk menjelaskan subject (The Caldecott Medal). Dan yang terdapat noun ialah pilihan jawaban A.

5. The horn of the rhinoceros consists of a cone of tight bundles of keratin _______ from the epidermis.
(A) grow
(B) grows
(C) growing
(D) they grow
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas terdapat Subject (the horn) dan Verb (consists). Jadi kita tidak butuh lagi verb lainnya. Otomatis pilihan jawaban A dan B salah. Pilihan jawaban D juga salah karena membuat clause lain. Ingat 2 clause harus terdapat 1 connector. Jadi tersisalah pilihan jawaban C.

6. Most species of heliotropes are weeds, _______ of them are cultivated.
(A) some
(B) but some
(C) for some species
(D) some species
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat atas, terdapat 2 verb (are) dan (are cultivated). Jadi terdapat dua clause. Ingat 2 clause harus terdapat 1 connector. Hanya pilihan jawaban B yang berisi connector (but).

7. Thunder occurs as _______ through air, causing the heated air to expand and collide with layers of cooler air.
(A) an electrical charge
(B) passes an electrical charge
(C) the passing of an electrical charge
(D) an electrical charge passes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat di atas terdapat 1 clause (Thunder occurs) dan 1 connector (as). Jadi bisa ditebak kalimat di atas mesti terdapat dua clause. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya D yang berbentuk clause. Ingat clause terdiri dari Subject dan Verb.

8. Researchers have long debated _______ Saturn's moon Titan contains hydrocarbon oceans and lakes.
(A) over it
(B) whether it
(C) whether
(D) whether over
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas terdapat 2 clause. Clause 1 (Researchers have long debated); clause 2 (Saturn's moon Titan contains). Jadi kita tinggal butuh 1 connector. Hanya pilihan jawaban C yang terdapat memenuhis syarat.

9. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark grey clouds _______ forebode rain.
(A) what
(B) which
(C) what they
(D) which they
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas terdapat subject (Nimbostratus clouds) dan verb (are). JJuga terdapat verb (forebode) jadi terdapat dua clause. Dua clause butuh 1 connector. Jawaban yang benar ialah B. Which berfungsi sebagai connector sekaligus sebagai subject dari verb (forebode). Materi ini masuk dalam materi "Adjective Clause".

10. _______ in several early civilizations, a cubit was based on the length of the forearm from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow.
(A) It was used as a measurement
(B) A measurement was used
(C) The use of a measurement
(D) Used as a measurement
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Used as a measurement in several early civilizations (digunakan sebagai sebuah ukuran di wal-awal peradaban silam), a cubit 
11. Only when air and water seep through its outer coat _______
(A) does a seed germinate
(B) to the germination of a seed
(C) a seed germinates
(D) for a seed to germinate
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat negative expression (only) di awal kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini mendandakan adanya inversion (pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Bentuk inversion umum dipakai dalam bentuk question. Hanya pilihan jawaban A memenuhi syarat.

12. _______ seasonal rainfall, especially in regions near the tropics, is winds that blow in an opposite direction in winter than in summer.
(A) Causing
(B) That cause
(C) To cause
(D) What causes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah subject untuk verb (is). Dari pilihan jawaban yang memnuhi syarat secara structure dan meaning ialah pilihan jawaban D. Materi ini masuk dalam katergori Noun Clause di mana noun clause bertindak sebagai subject kalimat. Pilhan jawaban A, B, dan C semuanya bisa digunakan sebagai subject hanya saja tidak sesuai dg kontek kalimat di atas. SAngat mudah dengan menggunakan pendekatan makna translation).

13. The extinct Martian volcano Olympus Mons is approximately three times as _______ Mount Everest.
(A) high
(B) high as is
(C) higher than
(D) the highest of
Pembahasan Jawaban: as + adjective + as. Pilihan jawaban B yang terdapat as.

14. The flight instructor, _______ at the air base, said that orders not to fight had been given.
(A) when interviewed
(B) when he interviewed
(C) when his interview
(D) when interviewing
: Pilihan benar ialah A. when interviewed (ketika diwawancara).

15. In the northern and central parts of the state of Idaho _______ and churning rivers.
(A) majestic mountains are found
(B) found majestic mountains
(C) are found majestic mountains
(D) finding majestic mountains
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat place expression 9In the northern and central parts of the state of Idaho) di awal kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini menandakan adanya inversion (pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Hanya pilihan jawaban C memenuhi syarat.
[Continue reading...]

Friday, April 18, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 3 by ETS)
Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban


16Bacterial cultures are used commercially in the preparation of food products such that yogurt, sour cream, and vinegar.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such that --> such as
Pasangan phrase

17.Anyone with absolute ,or perfect,pitch are able to identify by ear any note at some standard pitch or to sing a specified note at will.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is 
anyone (singular) + is (singular)

18. Sea horses usually live along the shore among seaweed and other plants to which they cling to by their tails.
Pembahasan Jawaban: cling to --> cling (double to)
Adjective clause. 
dua bentuk: (1) to which they cling by their tails (2) which they cling to by their tails. Bentuk pertama umum digunakan untuk situasi formal. 

19. Babies have soft spots between the bones of their skulls, which allowing for further growth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: allowing (adjective / present participle) --> allow (verb)
Adjective clause: Connector/Subject + Verb à which (connector/subject)

20. T.S.Elot, who a poet, playwright, literary critic, and editor, was a leader of the Modernist movement in poetry.
Pembahasan Jawaban: who --> dihilangkan saja
Appositive: noun (phrase) yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (yang umumnya posisi subject dalam soal TOEFL)

21. The Pacific Ocean comprises almost the entire boundary western of North and South America.
Pembahasan Jawaban: boundary western --> western boundary 
Noun phrase: Adjective +noun 

22Established in 1948, the State University of New York is the singly largest university system in the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: singly largest --> single largest
Pasangan phrase

23. Photography disseminates information about humanity and nature, records the visible world, and extension human knowledge into areas the eye cannot penetrate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: extension --> extends
Parallel Structure: disseminates (verb), records (verb), extends (verb)

24. Because of their rapidly changing economically fortunes, many frontier towns of the American West underwent spectacular fluctuations in population in the nineteenth century.
Pembahasan Jawaban: economically (adverb) --> economical (adjective) | rapidly (adverb) changing (adjective) economically (adverb) fortunes (noun)
Noun Phrase: adverb + adjective + noun 

25. Virtually no disease exists today for which there is no drug that can be given, neither to cure the disease or to alleviate its symptoms.
Pembahasan Jawaban: neither --> either
Paired Conjunction: either .. or ... , neither ... nor, both ... and

26.Calcium is essential for blood clotting, for the action of certain enzymes, and for the normal contraction and relax of muscles.
Pembahasan Jawaban: relax (verb) --> relaxation (noun)
1. for the relaxation of muscles (preposition + noun)
2. the noun + of + noun

27.The large collection of the Williams College Museum of Art includes ancient and medieval art ,but much exhibits are modern or contemporary.
Pembahasan Jawaban: much --> many
Much + singular nouns (uncountable); many + plural nouns (countable)

28.The technique of spectroscopy allows analyst of incoming light after it has been separated into its component wavelengths by passage through a prism.
Pembahasan Jawaban: analyst (person) --> analysis (thing)
Noun: sesuaikan posisi kata.

29. Today, fifty years after its construction, the Alaska Highway conveys 40,000 vehicles in normal year.
Pembahasan Jawaban: in normal --> in a normal
Noun: year merupakan countable noun. Jadi mesti ada artikel untuk mengetahui secara pasti berapa tahun (year) yang dimaksud. Artikel yang bisa digunakan dapat berupa: a, an, the. Disesuaikan makna kalimat.

30. Since prehistoric times, artists have been arranged colors on surfaces in ways that express their ideas about people, the world, and religion.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have been arranged (telah diatur) -> have arranged (telah mengatur)
Passive Voice:

31. Few substances look less alike than coal and diamonds, yet both are fashioned from same elemental carbon.
Pembahasan Jawaban: from same à from the same
Same umumnya bersama dengan the -à the same

32. Meteorologists can program their computes to scan for a specific set of weather criteria, such as falling barometric pressure, increase cloud cover, and rising humidity.
Pembahasan Jawaban: increase (to infinitive) à increasing (gerund)
Parallel Structure: falling (gerund), increasing, rising (gerund)

33. Obsidian is formed when siliceous lava cools too rapidly to crystallized into rock-forming minerals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: crystallized à crystallize atau be crystallized 
Makna yang diminta kalimat adalah makna pasif. Jika Noun + to + infinitive maka to infinitive bermakna pasif. Contoh lain: this is the best book to read (inilah buku yang paling bagus untuk dibaca)

34. European settlers in North America moved from the Atlantic coast across 3,000 miles forests, grasslands, deserts, and mountains until they reached the Pacific Ocean.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 3,000 miles forests à 3,000 mile forests
Ingat noun yang berfungsi / berposisi adjective tidak menggunakan tambahn -S

35. Philosophy tries to discover the nature of true and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life.
Pembahasan Jawaban: true (adjective) – truth (noun)
Preposition + noun (of + truth)

36. In this world of high technology, it is easy to forget that the most important tools ever developed for learning is still the book.
Pembahasan Jawaban: tools (plural) à tool (singular) disesuaikan dengan kata kerja is (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: singular subject + singular verb; plural subject + plural verb

37. The element potassium makes up less than one half percentage of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: percentage --> percent

38. Twenty thousand years ago a sheet of ice a thousand meters thick covered the coastal region which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located.
Which à in which
Pembahasan Jawaban: adjective clause: located in
Ada dua bentuk: (1) in which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located (Formal); (2) which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located in (Informal)

39. The Crow, Blackfoot, and Sioux tribes traditionally adorned they dwellings and costumes with colorful and highly valued beaded decorations.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they à their
Penggunaan Pronoun: they + verb; their + noun

40. In the late 1800’s, United States painter Thomas Eakins develop broad, powerful Realist style that became almost expressionistic in his later years.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop (present tense) à developed (past tense)
Tense: in the late 1800’s menandakan waktu yang lampau (past)

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