Friday, April 18, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 3 by ETS)
Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban

 

16Bacterial cultures are used commercially in the preparation of food products such that yogurt, sour cream, and vinegar.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such that --> such as
Pasangan phrase

17.Anyone with absolute ,or perfect,pitch are able to identify by ear any note at some standard pitch or to sing a specified note at will.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is 
anyone (singular) + is (singular)

18. Sea horses usually live along the shore among seaweed and other plants to which they cling to by their tails.
Pembahasan Jawaban: cling to --> cling (double to)
Adjective clause. 
dua bentuk: (1) to which they cling by their tails (2) which they cling to by their tails. Bentuk pertama umum digunakan untuk situasi formal. 

19. Babies have soft spots between the bones of their skulls, which allowing for further growth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: allowing (adjective / present participle) --> allow (verb)
Adjective clause: Connector/Subject + Verb à which (connector/subject)

20. T.S.Elot, who a poet, playwright, literary critic, and editor, was a leader of the Modernist movement in poetry.
Pembahasan Jawaban: who --> dihilangkan saja
Appositive: noun (phrase) yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (yang umumnya posisi subject dalam soal TOEFL)

21. The Pacific Ocean comprises almost the entire boundary western of North and South America.
Pembahasan Jawaban: boundary western --> western boundary 
Noun phrase: Adjective +noun 

22Established in 1948, the State University of New York is the singly largest university system in the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: singly largest --> single largest
Pasangan phrase

23. Photography disseminates information about humanity and nature, records the visible world, and extension human knowledge into areas the eye cannot penetrate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: extension --> extends
Parallel Structure: disseminates (verb), records (verb), extends (verb)

24. Because of their rapidly changing economically fortunes, many frontier towns of the American West underwent spectacular fluctuations in population in the nineteenth century.
Pembahasan Jawaban: economically (adverb) --> economical (adjective) | rapidly (adverb) changing (adjective) economically (adverb) fortunes (noun)
Noun Phrase: adverb + adjective + noun 

25. Virtually no disease exists today for which there is no drug that can be given, neither to cure the disease or to alleviate its symptoms.
Pembahasan Jawaban: neither --> either
Paired Conjunction: either .. or ... , neither ... nor, both ... and

26.Calcium is essential for blood clotting, for the action of certain enzymes, and for the normal contraction and relax of muscles.
Pembahasan Jawaban: relax (verb) --> relaxation (noun)
1. for the relaxation of muscles (preposition + noun)
2. the noun + of + noun

27.The large collection of the Williams College Museum of Art includes ancient and medieval art ,but much exhibits are modern or contemporary.
Pembahasan Jawaban: much --> many
Much + singular nouns (uncountable); many + plural nouns (countable)

28.The technique of spectroscopy allows analyst of incoming light after it has been separated into its component wavelengths by passage through a prism.
Pembahasan Jawaban: analyst (person) --> analysis (thing)
Noun: sesuaikan posisi kata.

29. Today, fifty years after its construction, the Alaska Highway conveys 40,000 vehicles in normal year.
Pembahasan Jawaban: in normal --> in a normal
Noun: year merupakan countable noun. Jadi mesti ada artikel untuk mengetahui secara pasti berapa tahun (year) yang dimaksud. Artikel yang bisa digunakan dapat berupa: a, an, the. Disesuaikan makna kalimat.

30. Since prehistoric times, artists have been arranged colors on surfaces in ways that express their ideas about people, the world, and religion.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have been arranged (telah diatur) -> have arranged (telah mengatur)
Passive Voice:

31. Few substances look less alike than coal and diamonds, yet both are fashioned from same elemental carbon.
Pembahasan Jawaban: from same à from the same
Same umumnya bersama dengan the -à the same

32. Meteorologists can program their computes to scan for a specific set of weather criteria, such as falling barometric pressure, increase cloud cover, and rising humidity.
Pembahasan Jawaban: increase (to infinitive) à increasing (gerund)
Parallel Structure: falling (gerund), increasing, rising (gerund)

33. Obsidian is formed when siliceous lava cools too rapidly to crystallized into rock-forming minerals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: crystallized à crystallize atau be crystallized 
Makna yang diminta kalimat adalah makna pasif. Jika Noun + to + infinitive maka to infinitive bermakna pasif. Contoh lain: this is the best book to read (inilah buku yang paling bagus untuk dibaca)


34. European settlers in North America moved from the Atlantic coast across 3,000 miles forests, grasslands, deserts, and mountains until they reached the Pacific Ocean.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 3,000 miles forests à 3,000 mile forests
Ingat noun yang berfungsi / berposisi adjective tidak menggunakan tambahn -S

35. Philosophy tries to discover the nature of true and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life.
Pembahasan Jawaban: true (adjective) – truth (noun)
Preposition + noun (of + truth)

36. In this world of high technology, it is easy to forget that the most important tools ever developed for learning is still the book.
Pembahasan Jawaban: tools (plural) à tool (singular) disesuaikan dengan kata kerja is (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: singular subject + singular verb; plural subject + plural verb

37. The element potassium makes up less than one half percentage of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: percentage --> percent

38. Twenty thousand years ago a sheet of ice a thousand meters thick covered the coastal region which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located.
Which à in which
Pembahasan Jawaban: adjective clause: located in
Ada dua bentuk: (1) in which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located (Formal); (2) which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located in (Informal)

39. The Crow, Blackfoot, and Sioux tribes traditionally adorned they dwellings and costumes with colorful and highly valued beaded decorations.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they à their
Penggunaan Pronoun: they + verb; their + noun

40. In the late 1800’s, United States painter Thomas Eakins develop broad, powerful Realist style that became almost expressionistic in his later years.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop (present tense) à developed (past tense)
Tense: in the late 1800’s menandakan waktu yang lampau (past)


[Continue reading...]

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Reading -Jupiter's Moons)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Reading -Jupiter's Moons)

Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Europe is the smallest of planet Jupiter's four largest moons and the second moon out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.

The surface of Europe is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of craters indicates that Europe's surface ice resembles Earth's Antarctic ice cap. The eggshell analogy may be quite accurate since the ice could be as little as a few kilometers thick--a tree shell around what is likely a subsurface liquid ocean that, in turn, encases a rocky core. The interior of Europe has been kept warm over the cons by tidal forces generated by the varying gravitational tugs of the other big moons as they wheel around Jupiter. The tides on Europe pull and relax in an endless cycle. The resulting internal heat keeps what would otherwise be ice melted almost to the surface. The cracklike marks on Europe's icy face appear to be fractures where water or slush oozes from below.

Soon after Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter in 1979, when the best images of Europe were obtained, researchers advanced the startling idea that Europe's subsurface ocean might harbor life. Life processes could have begun when Jupiter was releasing a vast store of internal heat. Jupiter's early heat was produced by the compression of the material forming the giant planet. Just as the Sun is far less radiant today than the primal Sun, so the internal heat generated by Jupiter is minor compared to its former intensity. During this warm phase, some 4.6 billion years ago, Europe's ocean may have been liquid right to the surface, making it a crucible for life.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effect of the tides on Europe's interior
(B) Temperature variations on Jupiter's moons
(C) Discoveries leading to a theory about one of Jupiter's moons
(D) Techniques used by Voyager 2 to obtain close-up images
Pembahasan Jawaban
Skill: Main Idea Question (Pertanyaan Ide Pokok)
Cara menjawab ide pokok ialah dengan melihat kalimat pertama setiap paragraf.

2. The word "intriguing" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) changing
(B) perfect
(C) visible
(D) fascinating
Pembahasan Jawaban
Skill: Vocabulary Question (Pertanyaan tentang pemahaman kosakata)
Cara menjawab soal kosakata ialah dengan menyesuaikan konteks makna kalimat dari kosakata yang ditanyakan.

3. In line 7, the author mentions "cracks in an eggshell" in order to help readers
(A) visualize Europe as scientists saw it in the Voyager 2 images
(B) appreciate the extensive and detailed information available by viewing Europe from far away
(C) understand the relationship of Europe to the solar system
(D) recognize the similarity of Europe to Jupiter's other moons
Pembahasan Jawaban
Cara menjawab soal seperti ini ialah dengan memahami kalimat di mana phrase tersebut dan kalimat-kalimat sebelumnya.
Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that astronomy textbooks prior to 1979
(A) provided many contradictory statistics about Europe
(B) considered Europe the most important of Jupiter's moons
(C) did not emphasize Europe because little information of interest was available
(D) did not mention Europe because it had not yet been discovered
Pembahasan Jawaban: Jawaban terdapat pada sebagian besar paragraf pertama.
Europe is the smallest of planet Jupiter's four largest moons and the second moon out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. 

5. What does the author mean by stating in line 7 that "this analogy is not far off the mark"?
(A) The definition is not precise.
(B) The discussion lacks necessary information.
(C) The differences are probably significant.
(D) The comparison is quite appropriate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Pahami kalimat dari phrase dan kalimat-kalimat sebelumnya.
Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that Europe and Antarctica have in common which of the following?
(A) Both appear to have a surface with many craters.
(B) Both may have water beneath a thin, hard surface.
(C) Both have an ice cap that is melting rapidly.
(D) Both have areas encased by a rocky exterior.
Pembahasan Jawaban: complete absence (betul-betul tidak ada)
The surface of Europe is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of craters indicates that Europe's surface ice resembles Earth's Antarctic ice cap.

7. The word "endless" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) new
(B) final
(C) temporary
(D) continuous
Pembahasan Jawaban: endless (tak berujung) = continuous (berkelanjutan)

8. According to the passage, what is the effect of Jupiter's other large moons on Europe?
(A) They prevent Europe's subsurface waters from freezing.
(B) They prevent tides that could damage Europe's surface.
(C) They produce the very hard layer of ice that characterizes Europe.
(D) They assure that the gravitational pull on Europe is maintained at a steady level.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Jawaban terdapat pada kalimat Jupiter's early heat was produced by the compression of the material forming the giant planet.

9 According to the passage, what is believed to cause the thin lines seen on Europa’s surface?
(A) A long period of extremely high tides
(B) Water breaking through from beneath the surface ice 
(C) The continuous pressure of slush on top of the ice
(D) Heat generated by the hot rocky core
[Continue reading...]

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2)
Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS)
Written Expression Model Test 2 
Semoga soal di bawah Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2) dapat menambah wawasan Anda dalam menjawab soal-soal TOEFL terkhusus bagian Written Expression. Soal di bawah ini merupakan soal asli dari pihak penyelenggara tes TOEFL. Soal yang telah diujikan tahun-tahun sebelumnya.

16. The world's water balance is regulated by the constant circulation of water in Liquid and vapor tom among the oceans, the atmospheric, and the land.
Pembahasan Jawaban: atmospheric (adjective) ----> atmosphere 
Paralel Structure _--> the oceans (noun), the atmosphere (noun), and the land (noun).

17. The major purpose of the United States Department of Education are to ensure equal educational opportunity for all and to improve the quality of education.
Pembahasan Jawaban: purpose --> purposes
Subject Verb Agreement / Singular Subject + Singular Verb;  Plural Subject + Plural Verb

18. Massive gains in computer speed, power, and reliably have been largely due to advances in silicon technologies and manufacturing processes.
Pembahasan Jawaban: reliably (adverb) --> reliability
Paralel Structure --> speed (noun), power (noun), and reliability (noun)

19. The sunflower, the official state flower of Kansas, and is widespread in the prairies of the western United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and is --> is

20. Lake Superior, part of the United States-Canadian boundary, is a largest freshwater lake in the world.
Pembahasan Jawaban: a --> the

21. The snapper, a large-headed fish with a long dorsal fin, is named to its characteristic way of suddenly, shutting its mouth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: named to --> name after/for
Pasangan kata (Phrase)

22. The aim of the decorative arts is to beautiful our surroundings.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to beautiful (adjective) --> to beautify (verb)

23. Modern digital synthesizers, based on microprocessors, are virtually unlimited in the number and range of musical sounds it can produce.
Pembahasan Jawaban: it ---> they
Pronoun Reference --> they refers to Modern digital synthesizers

24. During the years he composed, Charles Ives was isolation from the music world; none of his major works was publicly performed.
Pembahasan Jawaban:  isolation from --> isolated form

25. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy that attempts  to eliminate conflict by alter the personality in a positive way.
Pembahasan Jawaban: by alter --> by altering
Preposition + Verb-ing

26. Globally, the 1990's stood out as the warmest decade for what we have weather records.
Pembahasan Jawaban: for what --> for which
Adejctive Clause 

27. Silicon chips are reliable and cheap to produce in large numbers and are used them in computers, calculators, programmed household appliances, and most electronic applications.
Pembahasan Jawaban: used them --> used

28. Because its pitch cannot easily be altered, the oboe serves as the standard which by the symphony orchestra is tuned.
Pembahasan Jawaban: which by --> by which
Adjective Clause

29. Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that form cushions between tendons and bones and protect them while movement.
Pembahasan Jawaban: while --> during
While + Subject + Verb; During + Noun

30. In 1916, United States suffragist Alice Paul founded the National Woman's Patty, a political party dedicate to establishing equal rights for women.
Pembahasan Jawaban: dedicate --> dedicated
Subject Verb Agreement / Tense 

31. The spice cinnamon and the drugs cascara and quinine all come from bark, the protective out layer of stems and roots of woody plants.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 

32. Tunas migrate long distances over all the world's oceans and occupy tropicaltemperate, and even some the cooler waters.
Pembahasan Jawaban: some the --> some of the

33. Taste buds, small sensory organ located on the tongue and palate, recognize four primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty and bitter.
Pembahasan Jawaban: organ --> organs
Organs ---> tastes buds

34. Astronauts receive extensive training to prepare themselves both physically and psychologically for complexity and rigor of a space mission.
Pembahasan Jawaban: complexity --> the complexity
Article

35. By 1900 several prominent technical institutions, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, fashioned its own educational offerings to meet the industrial needs of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: its ---> their
Pronounce Reference --> their refers "several prominent technical to institutions"

36. Some of the earliest mechanical devices were designed to raise water from streams for the irrigate of crops.
Pembahasan Jawaban: irrigate --> irrigation 
The + noun + of

37. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 increased the territory of the United States by approximate 846,000 square miles, practically doubling the area of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: approximate --> approximately 

38. A most useful tool for analyzing the elemental composition of fossils is the electron probe, a modify electron microscope. 
Pembahasan Jawaban: modify --> modified
Noun Phrase (Adjective + Noun)

39. Few substance on Earth equal the beauty of gemstones such as twinkling diamonds, green emeralds, red rubies, blue sapphires, and multicolored opals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: substance ---> substances
Few + Plural Noun

40. For the purposes of the fine and decorative arts, metals have been used either in their simple state and in uncomplicated alloys.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and --> or
Either + or
[Continue reading...]

Sunday, March 30, 2014

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: Pacific Ocean

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: Pacific Ocean

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Next to its sheer size, the profound isolation of its many small islands is the most distinctive feature of the Pacific Ocean. Over 25,000 islands are scattered across the surface of the Pacific, more than in all the other oceans combined, but their land area adds up to little more than 125,000 square kilometers, about the size of New York State, and their inhabitants total less than two million people, about a quarter of the number that live in New York City. The oceanic islands of the Pacific are some of the most isolated places on Earth. Many are uninhabitable, by virtue of their small size and particular characteristics, but even the most favored are very isolated fragments of land, strictly circumscribed by the ocean, strictly limited in terms of the numbers of people they can support. This basic fact of environmental circumstance has been the most pervasive influence in determining the social arrangements, and cultural practices of the people that settled in the Pacific Islands.

The peopling of the Pacific Islands has been described as the greatest feat of maritime colonization in human history. Contrary to the conclusions of Thor Heyerdahl's Kon-Tiki expedition of 1946, the evidence of plant dispersal, archaeology, linguistics, and genetics now shows quite conclusively that the Pacific Islands were not populated from tile east by South Americans who drifted on balsa-wood rafts and the prevailing wind and current, but from the west, by groups from mainland Asia who gradually spread from island to island out into the Pacific. The process began over 40,000 years ago and reached Easter Island the most isolated place on Earth-about 1.500 years ago. It ended about 1,000 years ago, when people first settled in Hawaii and New Zealand.

Simply surviving those ocean crossings of indeterminate length, in open canoes, to arrive on the shores of uninhabited and hitherto unknown islands, was a formidable achievement. But having found an oasis of land in a watery wilderness, crossed its reef, and landed, on its shores, the survivors then faced a series of pressing problems for which solutions had to be found quickly if the small group was to become a vigorous, self- sustaining island population.

32. The word "scattered" in line 2 is closest in meaning toD
(A) widely known
(B) usually estimated
(C) rarely inhabited
(D) irregularly distributed

33. Why does the author mention New population of the Pacific York City in line 5?
(A) To emphasize how small the Islands is
(B) To emphasize the extreme distances between the Pacific Islands and other regions
(C) To note the economic ties of the Pacific Islands to other regions
(D) To note the lack of urban environments on the Pacific Islands

34.The phrase "by virtue or" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) regarding
(B) because of
(C) taking advantage of
(D) in place of

35. The word "circumscribed" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) located
(B) flooded
(C) restricted
(D) pushed

36. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as evidence used to determine the origins of Pacific Islands people?
(A) Oral histories
(B) Plant dispersal
(C) Linguistics
(D) Archaeology

37. According to the-passage, where did the original inhabitants of the Pacific Islands come from?
(A) South America
(B) Hawaii
(C) New Zealand
(D) Asia

38.The word "It” in line 16 refers to
(A) Pacific
(B) process
(C) isolated place
(D) Earth

39. The word "indeterminate" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) undecided
(B) uncertain
(C) unacceptable
(D) increasing

40. The passage is most likely followed by a discussion of
(A) how settlers adapted to newly discovered Pacific Ocean Islands
(B) the design and construction of canoes used in the Pacific Islands
(C) the characteristics sties of reefs in the Pacific Islands
(D) how early explorers of the Pacific Ocean found their way from island to island
[Continue reading...]

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: written records of Old European culture

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: written records of Old European culture

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still shrouded in mystery. There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term sometimes used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modem world, and we cannot yet translate the Old European script, Scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian, which used the cuneiform script, because of the fortuitous discovery of bilingual inscriptions, When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decipher them. Then inscriptions found in baa at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: these inscriptions were written in cuneiform and in two other ancient languages, Old Persian and New Elamite--languages that had already been deciphered. It took several decades, but scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.

Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery until French troops unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Egyptian hieratic, a simplified form of hieroglyphs. The Rosetta stone thwarted scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were decoded using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, we have no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.

Tim incursions of Indo-European tribes into Old Europe from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. caused a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. These incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where the Old European cultures abundantly employed script. The Old European way of life deteriorated rapidly, although pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia, ~ new peoples spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually vanished.

22. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Reasons for the failure to understand the written records of Old European culture
(B) Influences on the development of Old European script
(C) Similarities between Old European script and other ancient writing systems
(D) Events leading to the discovery of Old European script

23. According to the passage, New Elamite is
(A) a language that was written in the cuneiform script
(B) a modem language that came from Old Persian
(C) one of the languages spoken by the Old Europeans
(D) a language that was understood by the late eighteenth century

24. According to the passage, scholarswere able to decipher cuneiform script with the help of
(A) the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian languages
(B) Old Persian
(C) tablets written in Old European
(D) a language spoken in eighteenth century Iran

25. The word “fortuitous” in line 5 is closet in meaning to
(A) important
(B) sudden
(C) early
(D) lucky

26. The word "them" in line 6 refers to
(A) Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian
(B) bilingual inscriptions
(C) cuneiform tablets
(D) scholars

27. When does the passage suggest that ancient Egyptian hieroglypttic script was finally deciphered?
(A) At around the same time as cuneiform script was deciphered
(B) Shortly before the Rosetta stone was unearthed
(C) As soon as additional bilingual inscriptions became available to scholars
(D) A few decades after the hieratic script was decoded

28. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Rosetta stone?
(A) It was found by scholars trying to decode ancient languages.
(B) It contains two versions of hieroglyphic script.
(C) Several of its inscriptions were decoded within a few months of its discovery.
(D) Most of its inscriptions have still not been decoded.

29. The word "thwarted" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) continued
(B) influenced
(C) encouraged
(D) frustrated

30. According to the passage, Indo-European incursions caused Old European populations to
(A) separate into different tribes
(B) move eastward
(C) change their ways of living obtaining food
(D) start recording historical events in Writing

31. The author mentions the Balkans in the passage in order to explain why
(A) Indo-European languages were slow to spread in Old Europe
(B) the inhabitants of Old Europe were not able to prevent Indo-European incursions
(C) the use of the Old European script declined
(D) the Old European culture survived for a time after the Indo-European incursions

[Continue reading...]
 
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