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Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Pengertian dan Jenis Conjunction dalam Bahasa Inggris

Pengertian dan Jenis Conjunction dalam Bahasa Inggris

Pengertian dan Jenis Conjunction dalam Bahasa Inggris
Coordinating Conj.

Pengertian
Conjunction (kata penghubung), biasa disingkat dengan "conj.", merupakan salah satu jenis kata dalam bahasa Inggris yang berfungsi untuk menghubungkan word, phrase, atau clause dalam sebuah kalimat.

Jenis-jenis Conjunction
Secara umum, conjunction terbagi dalam 3 bagian: coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjunction, dan correlative conjuntion. 

1. Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating conj., dinamai pula "coordinator", ialah salah satu jenis kata penghubung yang menghubungkan dua atau lebih word, phrase, clause yang paralel.
Contoh dari coordinating conj. hanya ada 7: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, dan so; biasa disingkat FANBOYS.

a. For (karena)
- She remained silent, for her heart was heavy and her spirits low.
- This research is important, for it confirms the link between aggression and alcohol.
- Ria can't go to Ater's party, for Ria's going away that weekend.
- Idar wants to visit Paris, for it has excellent art museums.

b. And (dan)
- Idar and Ami already sent Ater a photograph of their vacation on Paris.
- The woman and her son stayed at the Clover Inn last month.
- He took a vitamin pill, and he drank a glass of orange juice.
- Ria goes camping every summer, and she usually has fun.
- The musical comedy Oklahoma did much to expand the potential of the musical stage, and it encouraged others to attempt original themes.

Penjelasan
Contoh pertama "and" berfungsi menghubungkan dua word: Idar and Ami.
Contoh ke dua "and" berfungsi menghubungkan dua phrase: The woman and her son.
Contoh ke tiga dan ke empat "and" berfungsi menghubungkan dua clause.

c. Nor (dan tidak pula)
- They do not gamble, nor do they smoke.
- He can't speak Bugenese, nor can he speak Javanese.
- She has not told anyone what you said, nor has she given any indication that something is wrong

Penjelasan
Nor umumnya digunakan dalam British English.
Nor dipakai untuk menghubungkan dua clause yang berbentuk negatif. Ketika nor digunakan sebagai coordinating conjunction maka clause setelahnya berbentuk inversion (pembalikan - Verb + Subject).
Bentuk inversion yang umum ditemukan ialah bentuk inversion dalam pertanyaan.
- They do not gamble, nor do they smoke.
- Do they smoke? (Bentuk pertanyaan)
- He can't speak Bugenese, nor can he speak Javanese.
- Can he speak Japanese?

d. But (tapi)
- She's very hard-working but not very imaginative.
- This is not caused by evil but by simple ignorance.
- Last year, we went camping at Blue Lake, but we had a terrible time.
- The most important development of the Neolithic age was not in the manufacture of stone tools but in the production of food.
- Gold can be combined with silver in any proportion, but alloys with 50 to 60 percent silver are the strongest.

e. Or (atau)
- Next year, we will take a cruise, or we may just stay at home.
- You can drive your car for another 2,000 miles, or you can get it fixed.
- You can pay now, or when you come back to pick up the paint.
- Fuel is any substance or material that reacts chemically with another substance or material to produce hot.

f. Yet
- Ria is tired, yet she is not going to sleep.
- They gamble, yet they don't smoke.
- Few substances look less like than coal and diamonds, yet both are fashioned from same elemental carbon.
- Sauropods had the smallest brains relative to body weight of any group of dinosaurs, yet they were among the most successful of all dinosaurs in evolutionary terms.

g. So (jadi)
- He gambled well last night, so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.
- My knee started hurting, so I stopped running.
- I was lost, so I bought a street map.
- I got hungry, so I made a sandwich.
- Ami, Ater, Idar, and Ria want to go Australia soon, so they need to save money.
- They have been to Australia, but last year they didn't enjoy it, so this year they will do something different during their vacation.

Perhatikan
1. Coordinating conj. umumnya diikuti comma (,) ketika menghubungkan dua clause.
- Tom told a joke, and Paul is short.
- Ater lives in South Sulawesi, but she was raised in Southeast Sulawesi.
2. Coordinating conj., menggunakan comma (,) jika menghubungkan 3 atau lebih word atau phrase.
- Physics, Mathematics, and Biology are my favorite subject.
- PhysicsMathematics and Biology are my favourite subject. (British English -Tidak ada comma sebelum and).
- Canada began cultivating wheat intensively in 1910, which led to a demand for tools, machines, housing, and building supplies.
- Idar, and Ami are good friends. (salah -tak perlu comma jika hanya dua word atau phrase yg dihubungkan).
3. Posisi coordinating conj. umumnya terletak di tengah kalimat
- So the quality of the print was not good, I changed the typewriter ribbon. (salah)
- The quality of the print was not good, so I changed the typewriter ribbon. (benar)
4. Coordinating conj. menghubungkan dua atau lebih word, phrase, clause yang parallel.
Quality, price, and located are often considered to be the primary concerns in buying a house. (salah)
Qualityprice, and location are often considered to be the primary concerns in buying a house. (benar)
- Most sedimentary rocks start forming when grains of clay, silt, or sandy settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans. (salah)
- Most sedimentary rocks start forming when grains of claysilt, or sand settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans. (benar)
- Meteorologists can program their computes to scan for a specific set of weather criteria, such as falling barometric pressure, increase cloud cover, and rising humidity. (salah)
- Meteorologists can program their computes to scan for a specific set of weather criteria, such as falling barometric pressure, increasing cloud cover, and rising humidity. (benar)

Perhatikan lagi
1. Simple Sentence (1 kombinasi Subject dan Verb)
- He speaks English fluently. (S V)
- Idar and Ria speak Japanese and English well. (SS V)
- He speaks and writes English well. (S VV)
- Ami and Ater speak and write Japanese well. (SS VV)
2. Compund Sentence (2 simple sentence yang dihubungkan oleh coordinating conj.)
- Tom is singing, and Paul is dancing. (SV, and SV)
- Tom is tall, but Paul is short. (SV, but SV)
- Tom must write the letter, or Paul will do it. (SV, or SV)
- Ami and Ater speak and write Japanese well, and Idar and Ria speak Japanese and English well. (SSVV, and SSV)

2. Subordinating Conjunction
3. Correlative Conjunction 

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