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Sunday, June 8, 2014

Pengertian dan Jenis Subordinating Conjunction

Pengertian dan Jenis Subordinating Conjunction

Pengertian dan Jenis Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating conjunction, disebut juga subordinators, merupakan salah satu jenis kata penghubung yang menghubungkan independent clause dan dependent clause (adverb, adjective, dan noun clause). Kata penghubung "subordinating conjunction" yang paling umum ditemukan ialah after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while.

Adverb Clause
Berikut kata-kata penghubung subordinate conjunction yang biasa digunakan dalam adverb clause:
1. Time: when, whenever (kapanpun), while (selagi/ketika), since, after, before, until, as (selagi), once, as soon as (segera setelah), as/so long as (sepanjang), every time, the next time dll.
a. Mary had wanted to be a nurse since he was young.
b. He maintained his interest in law until he was assassinated.
c. We worked as long as we could.
d. The people danced as the music played.
e. A great aviation pioneer, Amelia Earthart was already famous when she set out on her ill-fated attempt to circle the globe in 1937.

2. Contrast: although, though, even though, while, whereas dll.
a. Even though the weather is cold, I went swimming.
b. I went swimming although the weather is cold.
c. Paul is rich, while John is poor.
d. Whereas Paul is rich, John is poor.
e. Seven of the planets rotate in the same direction as their orbital motions, while Venus and Uranus rotate in the opposite direction.

3. Cause and effect (reason): as, because, since, in that, inasmuch as, now that (karena sekarang), so … that, such … that dll.
a. Because I felt so sleepy, I went to bed earlier.
b. As you have already read the reading, you will be able to answer the questions.
c. Now that the semester is over, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.
d. It was such nice coffee that I had another cup.
e. The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it.
f. The native spoke so fast that I couldn't understand him.
g. Because its pitch cannot easily be altered, the oboe serves as the standard by which the symphony orchestra is tuned.
Perhatikan cara penggunaan kata so … that dan such … that:
- Such + adjective +noun + that
- So + adjective/adverb + that
- So + adverb + that

4. Purpose: so (that), in order that, dll.
a. He wrote that memo in order that there would be no misunderstandings.
b. I always bring a book so that I can read it when I have free time.

5. Manner: as, as if, as though, like dll.
a. I will do as I have been instructed.
b. Betty looks as if something is wrong.
c. He acted as if he was the owner.

6. Place: where, wherever, everywhere dll.
a. I will meet you wherever you choose.
b. I have always lived where I was born.
c. Everywhere he goes, people admire him.

7. Condition: if, even if, only if, if only, even if, provided, providing, in case, unless, whether or not dll.
a. If the salary were high, I would sign the contract.
b. If only I had wings, I would go around the world.
c. I will marry her only if she is dead.
d. I can’t attend the meeting unless I find a baby-sitter.
e. I won’t go swimming whether the weather is nice or not.

Perhatikan
1. Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted the outcome of the election cannot be announced. (salah)
2. Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted, the outcome of the election cannot be announced. (benar)
3. The outcome of the election cannot be announced inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted. (benar)
Penjelasan:
Kalimat no. 1 salah karena tidak ada koma antara dua klausa.
Klausa 1: Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted (Adverb Clause)
Klause 2: the outcome of the election cannot be announced (Main Clause)
Jika Adverb Clause berada di depan kalimat, maka mesti ada koma (,) di antara dua klausa. Jika Adverb Clause berada di akhir kalimat (seperti contoh kalimat no.3), maka tidak dibutuhkan koma (,).

PENGECUALIAN: Khusus untuk coordinating conjunction yg bersifat direct contrast seperti "whereas" dan "while" koma (,) selalu digunakan walau adverb clause di akhir kalimat.
1. The Smith family arrived at 2:00, while the John family arrived an hour later.
2. While the Smith family arrived at 2:00, the John family arrived an hour later.
3. Whereas the Smith family arrived at 2:00, the John family arrived an hour later.
4. Whereas the John family arrived an hour later, the Smith family arrived at 2:00.

Noun Clause
Coordinating conjunction yg biasa digunakan untuk kategori noun clause ialah: what, when, where, whose, why, how, whatever, whenever, whether, if, that, who, which, whoever, whatever, whichever.

Noun Clause merupakan sebuah clause yang berfungsi sebagai noun; karena noun clause termasuk dalam kategori noun maka noun clause dalam kalimat digunakan sebagai object dari verb, object dari preposition, subject dari kalimat, atau complement dari kata kerja "be".
1. Noun clause sebagai subject dari kalimat
- When he will arrive isn't important.
- Whoever is coming to the party must bring a gift.
- What was written in the letter angered him beyond belief.
- Where he is going is a secret.
- When the season starts is determined by the weather.
What brought about the widespread extinction of the dinosaurs is unknown; it must, however, have involved major changes in the environment.
- That malaria was caused by breathing impure air was once a common belief. 
Perhatikan: 
It was once a common belief that malaria was caused by breathing impure air. 
It is a fact that the world is round.
Penjelasan:
Lebih umum ditemukan, kata "it" berfungsi sebagai subject dan noun clause diletakkan di akhir kalimat.

2. Noun clause sebagai object dari verb
- I know when he will arrive.
- I wonder whether she will come.
- I wonder if she needs help.
- I think that he is a doctor.
- She said, "My mother is a student."
- I do not know what is in the box.
- The motorist was unable to discover who had struck his car.
- The weather announcer said that there will be thunderstorms.
- The first peoples to inhabit what today is the southeastern United States sustained themselves as hunters and gathers.
Perhatikan:
- I think he is a doctor.
- I hope (that) you arrived safely.
- In the fifteenth century, many people believed (that) the world is round.
Penjelasan:
Ada beberapa kata kerja yang setelahnya "that" sering dihilangkan (omitted): assume, believe, hope, imagine, know, remember, say, suppose, tell, think, understand.

3. Noun clause sebagai object dari preposition.
- I am concerned about when he will arrive.
- I listened to what he said.
- We are concerned about who will do the work.
- Gourds were introduced to what is now the southwestern United States by the earliest peoples who migrated north from Mesoamerica about 7000 years ago.

4. Noun clause sebagai complement (pelengkap) dari kata kerja be (is, are, am, was, were)
- This is what I think.
- One basic question psychologists have tried to answer is how people learn.
- It was in 1875 that Anna Winlock joined the staff of the astronomical observatory at Harvard University.
- The most vulnerable moment in any animal's life is when it first finds itself completely on its own, when it must forage and fend for itself.
- The main point of the second paragraph is that oral narratives are a valid form of literature.

Perhatikan:
a. What time is it?
b. Do you know what time it is?
c. She can tell you what time it is.
d. Do you know what time is it? (salah)
e. She can tell you what time is it. (salah)
f. When did she watch the movie?
g. Do you know when he saw the movie?
h. I wonder when he saw the movie.
i. Do you know when did he see the movie?  (salah)
j. I wonder when did he see the movie. (salah)
k. I wonder why he didn't watch the movie.
Penjelasan:
Susunan kata (word order) noun clause sama dengan kalimat positif (Subject + Verb).
Contoh (a) merupakan kalimat tanya (Verb + Subject).
Contoh (f) merupakan kalimat tanya (menggunakan did/does/did).
Contoh (b), (c), (g), (h), terdapat noun clause. Ingat: susunan kata noun clause ialah Subject + verb bukan Verb + Subject.
Contoh (d) dan (e) salah karena bentuknya Verb + Subject.
Contoh (i) dan (j) salah karena did/do/does hanya dipakai dalam kalimat negative dan question.

Adjective Clause
Coordinating conjunction yg biasa digunakan untuk kategori adjective clause ialah: who, whom, which, that, whose, where, when.
- Which dan that -> menjelaskan things [that untuk people hanya dalam situasi informal / tidak dalam TOEFL yg notabene berdasar formal)
- Who --> people (subject)
- Whom --> people (object)
- Whose --> people (kepunyaan)
- Where --> place
- When --> time

Adjective clause merupakan clause yang berfungsi sebagai adjective yaitu menjelaskan noun. Letak adjective clause persis setelah noun yang dijelaskan.
Contoh:
- The woman is filling the glass that she put on the table.
- The glass that she put on the table contains milk.
Penjelasan:
Kita lihat pada kalimat pertama di atas:
Adjective clause: that she put on the table.
Noun yg dijelaskan: the glass
Kalimat utamaThe woman is filling the glass

Pada kalimat ke dua di atas:
Adjective clause: that she put on the table.
Noun yg dijelaskan: the glass
Kalimat utama: The glass contains milk.

Perhatikan:
- The woman is filling the glass that she put on the table.
The glass that she put on the table contains milk.
- The woman is filling the glass that is on the table.
- The glass that is on the table contains milk.
Penjelasan:
Pada contoh pertama dan ke dua, conjunction "that" murni sebagai conjunction.
Pada contoh ke tiga dan ke empat, conjuntion "that" sebagai conjunction sekaligus sebagai subject.

Cara membedakan:
Kalimat pertama di atas berasal dari gabungan 2 kalimat.
- The woman is filling the glass.
- She put the glass on the table. ("the glass" sebagai object dalam kalimat ini menjelaskan the glass mana yang dimaksud oleh kalimat pertama)
Kalimat ke dua berasal dari:
- The glass contains milk.
- She put the glass on the table. ("the glass" sebagai object dalam kalimat ini menjelaskan the glass mana yang dimaksud oleh kalimat pertama)
Pola: Noun + Conjunction + Subject + Verb

Kalimat ke tiga di atas berasal dari:
- The woman is filling the glass.
- The glass is on the table. ("the glass" sebagai subject dalam kalimat ini menjelaskan the glass mana yang dimaksud oleh kalimat pertama)
Kalimat ke empat:
- The glass contains milk.
- The glass is on the table. ("the glass" sebagai subject dalam kalimat ini menjelaskan the glass mana yang dimaksud oleh kalimat pertama)
Pola: Noun + Conjunction / Subject + Verb

Contoh-contoh adjective clause:
1. It is important to fill out the form in the way that you have been instructed.
2. The car, which I have been driving for five years, is for sale at a really good price.
3. I made an appointment with the doctor whom you recommended
4. The plane that he was scheduled to take to Hawaii was delayed.
5. The men with whom were having the discussion did not seem very friendly.
6. The ice cream that is served in the restaurant has a smooth, creamy texture 
7. The cars, which are trying to enter the freeway system, are lined up for blocks. 
8. I have great respect for everyone who is on the Dean's List
9. The neighbors reported the man who was trying to break into the car to the police. 
10. The boss meets with any production workers who have surpassed their quotas

Bentuk-bentuk soal-soal TOEFL terkait adverb clause, noun clause, dan adjective clause:
1.Modern skyscrapers have a steel skeleton of beams and columns ___a three-dimensional grid. 
A. forms 
B. from which forming 
C. and forming 
D. that forms
-->  Terkait noun clause 
--> Kunci jawaban D. that forms

2. The average level of United States prices grew very little from 1953 until the mid-1960’s when ____________.
A. did inflation begin
B. inflation began
C. the beginning of inflation
D. did the beginning of inflation
-->  Terkait noun clause 
--> Kunci jawaban B. inflation began

3. Newspaper publishers in the united states have estimated ___________reads a newspaper every day.
A. nearly 80 percent of the adult population who
B. it is nearly 80 percent of the adult population
C. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population who
D. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population
-->  Terkait noun clause
--> Kunci jawaban D. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population

4. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in shapes, colors, and materials _________ to handle and to sort them.
(A) that almost compel one
(B) one compels
(C) that compel almost
(D) one is almost compelled
-->  Terkait adjective clause
--> Kunci jawaban(A) that almost compel one

5. From colonial times, United States property owners agreed to tax themselves on the theory__________ directly from services that the government could provide.
(A) property owners benefited so that
(B) why property owners benefited
(C) that if property owners benefited
(D) that property owners benefited
-->  Terkait adjective clause
--> Kunci jawaban (D) that property owners benefited.
Banyak pelajar memilih jawaban B. Memang secara makna pilihan B bisa saja sesuai. Tapi secara structure (grammar) hanya piliha D (yang menggunakan conjunction"that") bisa digunakan sebagai adjective clause yg menjelaskan noun sebelumnya "theory".

10.  _________, dolphins have no sense of smell.
(A) As known as far
(B) Known thus far as
(C) It is known as far
(D) As far as it is known
-->  Terkait adverb clause
--> Kunci jawaban (D) As far as it is known

6. Metabolism is the inclusive term for the chemical reactions by which the cells of an organism transforms energy, maintain their identity, and reproduce. 
-->  Terkait adjective clause 
--> Kunci jawaban transforms --> transform 

Catatan:
Pembahasan Adverb Clause, Noun Clause, dan Adjective Clause dalam postingan ini tidak begitu merinci. Masih ada materi lain yg sering masuk dalam soal TOEFL terkait ke 3 clause di atas termasuk reduced adverb clause dan reduced adjective clause. 
Selanjutnya akan kami bahas dalam situs Pusat TOEFL ini.

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