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Monday, April 28, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 5)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 5)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 5)
TOEFL Structure
1. Over the centuries, ____ that try to explain the origins of the university.
(A) although many theories
(B) many theories
(C) have many theories been
(D) there have been many theories
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1:  'that try to explain the origins of the university' merupakan adjective clause. Adjective clause menjelaskan noun yang letaknya sebelum adjective clause itu sendiri. Jadi sebelum adjective clause di atas mesti ada noun yang dijelaskan. Pilihan C sudah jelas salah karena bukan noun yang sebelum adjective clause tapi 'been'.
Langkah 2: Kalimat di atas terdapat 1 clause 'that try to explain the origins of the university' yang terdapat connector 'that' yang juga berfungsi sebagai subject dari verb 'try'. Adanya 1 connector menandakan dalam kalimat tersebut terdapat dua clause. Olehnya yang kita butuhkan dari pilihan jawaban ialah 1 clause. Clause ialah kumpulan kata yang didalamnya terdapat subject dan verb. Pilihan A dan B bukanlah clause.  Jadi pilihan yang tepat ialah pilihan D.

2. The planet Venus is almost exactly the same size and mass _____ Earth, with a similar
interior, including a nickel-iron core.
(A) to
(B) as
(C) is
(D) than
Pembahasan Jawaban: the same + as

3. George Washington Carver ____ international fame for revolutionizing agriculture research
in the southern United States during the early twentieth century.
(A) won
(B) winning
(C) who has won
(D) the winner of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb.

4. Constituting one of the earliest engineering techniques, ______ in Paleolithic time was done in order to extend natural caves.
(A) tunnels were built
(B) which built tunnels
(C) the building of tunnels
(D) tunnels whose building
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas buuth subject. Verb dari kalimat di atas ialah 'was done'.

5. The tulip tree is native to the eastern United States, _____ the tallest and largest broadleaf
tree.
(A) where
(B) where it is
(C) it is where
(D) is where
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'where it is the tallest and largest broadleaf tree' merupakan adjective clause yang menjelaskan noun sebelumnya 'the eastern United States'.

6. Elementary schools in the United states provide formal education ______ arithmetic, science, social science, and communication skills that including reading, writing, spelling, and speaking.
(A) such subjects as basic in
(B) as basic subjects in such
(C) in such basic subjects as
(D) as in such basic subjects
Pembahasan Jawaban: pasangan kata yang benar ialah such as bukan as such. Jadi pilihan B dan D sudah jelas salah. Ingat pola noun phrase (adjective + noun). Kita lihat dipilihan jawaban ada kata basic (adjective) dan subjects (noun). Antara A dan C hanya C yang memnuhi syarat pola noun phrase (adj. + noun).

7. ______ land and money enabled construction of the Union Pacific railroad to begin from Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1865.
(A) By the government granting of
(B) Government grants of
(C) For the government to grant
(D) Government grants so that
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan dari kalimat di atas ialah subject. Verb nya ialah 'enabled'.

8. Appointments to the United States Supreme Court and all lower federal courts ____ by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
(A) making
(B) to make
(C) are made
(D) have made
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat 'by' jawabannya mesti passive 'are made'.

9. The name “squirrel” is commonly used for those forms of the family Sciuridae that live in
trees, _____ it is equally accurate for ground dwelling types.
(A) whether
(B) that
(C) although
(D) in spite of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada dua clause. Clause 1 = 'The name “squirrel” is commonly used'; Clause 2 = 'it is equally accurate'. Untuk menghubungkan ke dua clause di atas kita butuh connector. Connector yang tepat ialah 'although' (pilihan C)

10. Green plants combine _____ with water and carbon dioxide to make food.
(A) energy derived from light
(B) energy, derived it from light
(C) energy is derived from light
(D) from light, and energy derived
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas sudah terdapat subject dan verb jadi kita tinggal butuh object. Pilihan C sudah salah karen terdapat clause tanpa connector (tidak bisa jadi object). Pilihan D salah karena terdapat 'from' --> combine + noun tanpa 'from'. Pilihan B salah karen 'derived' menjelaskan 'energy' jadi tidak lagi butuh it.
Materi ini masuk dalam topik Adjective Clause (Reduction) atau juga Past Participle

11. From the archeologist’s perspective, understanding the past is vitally important and requires ______ of earlier cultures.
(A) the ruins examined
(B) examining the ruins
(C) of the ruins to be examined
(D) that the examined ruins

12. The Texas Legislature selected Vassar Miller _____ in 1982, and again in 1988.
(A) was the state’s poet laureate
(B) as the state’s poet laureate
(C) the state’s poet laureate
(D) become the state’s poet laureate
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1: Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap Subject dan Verb. Jadi kita tidak lagi butuh verb lainnya. Pilihan A dan D olehnya sudah jelas salah.
Langkah 2: Ketika kita menggunakan kata 'selected' tidak lagi perlu menggunakan kata 'as' tapi langsung saja noun setelahnya.
Contoh lain: I selected you the president of the meeting club. Kata kerja yang lain masuk dalam kategori kata kerja semacam ini ialah: consider, find, believe, think, prove call, name, elect, appoint, nominate, make, paint, suppose, turn (mengubah), dan build.

13. The distinguishing feature of a fluid, in contrast to a solid, is the ease _____ .
(A) that a deformed fluid
(B) to deform a fluid
(C) when a fluid that is deformed
(D) with which a fluid may be deformed

14. Oxygen and nutrients reach the body’s tissues ____ from the blood through the capillary wall.
(A) pass
(B) by passing
(C) to be passing
(D) have passed
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap subject dan verb jadi tidak butuh lagi verb. Pilihan A dan D sudah jelas salah. Pilihan C tidak sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

15. _____ important development of the Neolithic age was not in the manufacture of stone tools but in the production of food.
(A) The most
(B) Most
(C) Most of
(D) Of the most
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada beberapa aturan dalam menggunakan most / most of
1. Most of digunakan sebelum plural noun yang mempunyai determiner atau pronoun di depannya.
Contoh: Most of the students live with host families.
Most of  students live with host families. (Salah karena tanpa determiner)
2. Most digunakan sebelum plural noun yang tidak mempunyai determiner atau pronoun di depannya
 Contoh: Most students live with host families.  
Most of students live with host families. 
Before a plural noun that does not have a determiner or pronoun in front of it, don't say 'most of', just say  most :  

Dari penjelasan di atas sudah jelas bahwa pilihan B dan C tidak sesuai pada kalimat.
Pilihan D salah karena jika menggunakan bentuk of the most itu bearti akan ada beberapa benda / hal yang di-list dan biasanya ditandai dengan koma. Di atas tidak ada tanda-tanda adanya yang di-list.
Contoh; Of the seven students, Anto is the best one at speaking English.

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