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Friday, January 10, 2014

Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question

Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question

Pada sesi reading comprehension tes TOEFL Anda akan dihadapkan 5 text bacaan diikuti beberapa pertanyaan yang keseluruhan soalnya sebanyak 50 jumlah soal. Sementara waktu untuk mengerjakan soal reading ini hanyalah 45 menit. Di bawah ini kami berikan beberapa Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question. Tingkat frequensi kemunculan soal ide pokok pada tes TOEFL mencapai 3 sampai 4 nomor. 

1. Cara Mengidentifikasi Bentuk-bentuk Pertanyaan ide pokok (Main Idea)
Dalam tes TOEFL, ada beberapa kata kunci (key word) dalam mengidentifikasi bentuk pertanyaan ide pokok. Kata-kata tersebut termasuk: topic, subject, title, primary idea, atau main idea. Ide pokok ini menguji kemampuan Anda dalam memahami informasi utama yang ingin disampaikan oleh si penulis. 
Untuk lebih jelasnya berikut bentuk-bentuk pertanyaan ide pokok:
1. What is the subject of the passage? 
2. What is the main idea of the passage? 
3. What is the author's main point in the passage? 
4. With what is the author primarily concerned
5. Which of the following would be the best title?
2. Cara Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question
1. Bacalah baris atau kalimat pertama pada setiap paragraf.
Menjawab soal ide pokok pada tes TOEFL cukup dengan memahami permulaan setiap paragraf; hal ini dikarenakan text bacaan TOEFL mengikuti pola penulisan imiah tradisional bahasa Inggris.
2. Temukan tema atau ide utama pada baris atau kalimat pertama setiap paragraf.
3. Eliminasilah soal jawaban yang jelas salah dan pilihlah jawaban yang paling sesuai.
4. PENGECUALIAN: Kadang ide pokok juga berada pada kalimat atau baris terakhir pada paragraf pertama sementara pada paragraf lain tetap terdapat pada baris pertama. Misal: jika ada 3 paragraf maka ide pokoknya bisa jadi pada kalimat akhir untuk paragraf pertama dan kalimat  awal untuk paragraf 2 dan 3.
Contoh Soal 1


Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen is continuously fed into biological circulation. In this process, certain algae and bacteria convert nitrogen into ammonia (NH3).This newly-created ammonia is then for the most part absorbed by plants.
The opposite process of denitrification returns nitrogen to the air. During the process of denitrification, bacteria cause some of the nitrates from the soil to convert into gaseous nitrogen or nitrous oxide (N20). In this gaseous form, the nitrogen returns to the atmosphere.

Which of the following would be the best title for this passage ?
A. The Process of Nitrogen Fixation
B. Two Nitrogen Processes 
C. The Return of Nitrogen to the Air
D. The Effect of Nitrogen on Plant Life

Penjelasan: Untuk menjawab soal ini (main idea question) cukup dengan melihat kalimat pertama pada setiap paragraf. Dan memahami makna kalimat dengan berfokus pada kata kunci (key word). Kata kunci telah kami bold.

Contoh Soal 2

Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients to provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are classified according to the method by which they are derived. 
The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms that have been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of vaccine, the microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease; however, the antigens found in and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the formation of antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine are the ones that fight influenza, typhoid fever, and cholera.
A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms rather than the microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when the microorganism itself does little damage but the toxin within the microorganism is extremely harmful. For example, the bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive in the throat without much harm, but when toxins are released from the bacteria, muscles can become paralyzed and death can ensue.
A final type of vaccine contains living microorganisms that have been rendered harmless. With this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are produced and the immunity that results is generally longer lasting than the immunity from other types of vaccines. The Sabin oral antipolio vaccine and the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis are examples of this type of vaccine.

Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?
A. Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases.
B. Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms.
C. Vaccines are derived in different ways.
D. New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed.

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