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Monday, January 20, 2014

Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading dan Pembahasan: The reasons for the extinction

Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading dan Pembahasan: The reasons for the extinction

The reasons for the extinction of a species, and for the rapid rates of change in our environment, are currently a focus of much scientific research. An individual species' susceptibility to extinction depends on at least two things: the taxon (the biological group - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, or genus) to which a species belongs, and the overall rate of environmental change. Fossil evidence shows that more mammals and birds become extinct than do mollusks or insects. Studies of the extinction of the dinosaurs and other reptiles during the Cretaceous Period show that a changing environment affects different taxa in different ways. Some may be dramatically affected; others less so.

The best way to answer the question of what causes an extinction is to combine fields of inquiry and viewpoints. Using the fossil record and historical documentation, the different rates of extinction of various taxa and different responses to environmental change can be detected. Then, the evolutionary development of the different species can be compared and traits that may be disadvantageous can be singled out. Finally, researchers can use mathematical formulas to determine whether a population is likely to adopt itself tо the changing environment or disappear. Hopefully, as more of this information is collected, specialists in different fields -physiological and behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, evolutionary biology and systematics, biogeography, and paleobiology - will work together to make predictions about the broader changes that might occur in the ecosystem.

1.  Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
A. assessment of the work of specialists concerned with ecology
B. a discussion of possible causes of extinction, and of ways to make predictions about environmental change
C. the changing aspects of our environment
D. a comparison of the existing rates of different taxa

2.  The word susceptibility in line 3 is closest in meaning to:
A. insensitivity
B. receptiveness
C. immunity
D. vulnerability

3.  An example of a taxon would be:
A. a phylum
B. the rate of environmental change
C. a fossil
D. studies of extinction

4.  The author compares mammals and birds to:
A. mollusks and insects
B. phylum and class
C. dinosaurs and reptiles
D. ecologists and biologists

5.  It can be inferred from the passage that a significant event of the Cretaceous Period was:
A. the appearance of many taxa
B. the dramatic effect of the dinosaur on the environment
C. the extinction of birds
D. the extinction of dinosaurs

6.  It can be inferred from the passage that dinosaurs:
A. included species that were mammals
B. were better represented in the fossil record than other species
C. possessed disadvantageous traits
D. were not susceptible to extinction

7.  The word dramatically in line 8 means:
A. strongly
B. inspiringly
C. flimsily
D. visually

8.  The word fields in the line 9 is closest in meaning to:
A. areas
B. meadows
C. studies
D. careers

9.  From the passage it can be inferred that disadvantageous traits are:
A. occurring at different rates
B. a contributing cause of extinction
C. adaptable
D. learned by mathematical formulas

10. The expression singled out in line 15 is closest in meaning to:
A. isolated
B. blamed
C. seen
D. divided

11. According to the passage, the likelihood of a population becoming extinct can be:
A. lessened by the efforts of a few concerned specialists
B. unaffected by environmental change
C. determined by mathematical formulas
D. almost impossible to ascertain

12. The word broader in line 20 is closest in meaning to:
A. fatter
B. extra
C. wider
D. many

Kunci Jawaban dan Pembahasan

1. B. a discussion of possible causes of extinction, and of ways to make predictions about environmental change 
Pembahasan: Soal ini yaitu terkait soal main idea. Cara menjawab soal semacam ini cukup dengn membaca kalimat pertama setiap paragraf. Untuk belajar lebih jauh terkait skill ini, klik Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question. Kata kunci utama terdapat pada The reasons for the extinction of a species (Paragraf 1) dan what causes an extinction  (Paragraf 2)

2. D. vulnerability
Pembahasan: Cara menjawab soal pertanyaan kosakata seperti ini yaitu dengan mencari sinonim di pilihan jawaban yang sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

3. A. a phylum
Pembahasan: Jawaban terdapat pada the taxon (the biological group - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, or genus).

4. A. mollusks and insects
Pembahasan: Jawaban terdapat pada more mammals and birds become extinct than do mollusks or insects.

5. D. the extinction of dinosaurs
Pembahasan: Soal bentuk ini masuk dalam kategori soal Implied Detail Questions -di mana Anda mesti menyimpulkan ide dari kalimat atau key word tertentu.
Jawaban terdapat pada Studies of the extinction of the dinosaurs and other reptiles during the Cretaceous Period show that a changing environment affects different taxa in different ways.

6. C. possessed disadvantageous traits
Pembahasan: Soal bentuk ini masuk dalam kategori soal Implied Detail Questions -di mana Anda mesti menyimpulkan ide dari kalimat atau key word tertentu.
Jawaban terdapat pada Then, the evolutionary development of the different species can be compared and traits that may be disadvantageous can be singled out.

7. A. strongly
Pembahasan: Cara menjawab soal pertanyaan kosakata seperti ini yaitu dengan mencari sinonim di pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

8. C. studies
Pembahasan: Cara menjawab soal pertanyaan kosakata seperti ini yaitu dengan mencari sinonim di pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

9. B. a contributing cause of extinction
Pembahasan: Soal bentuk ini masuk dalam kategori soal Implied Detail Questions -di mana Anda mesti menyimpulkan ide dari kalimat atau key word tertentu.
Jawaban terdapat pada the different rates of extinction of various taxa and different responses to environmental change can be detected. Then, the evolutionary development of the different species can be compared and traits that may be disadvantageous can be singled out.

10. isolated
Pembahasan: Cara menjawab soal pertanyaan kosakata seperti ini yaitu dengan mencari sinonim di pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

11. C. determined by mathematical formulas
Pembahasan: Jawaban terdapat pada researchers can use mathematical formulas to determine whether a population is likely to adopt itself tо the changing environment or disappear.

12. C. wider
Pembahasan: Cara menjawab soal pertanyaan kosakata seperti ini yaitu dengan mencari sinonim di pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

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