Semua ebook dalam website ini tidak berbayar. Jika ada link yang meminta bayaran atau ada link yg error mohon sampaikan ke kami dengan memberi komen di kolom komentar beserta link postingan kami yg bermasalah. Terimakasih banyak.

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Organization of Ideas in a Passage

Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: 
Organization of Ideas in a Passage
Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Organization of Ideas in a Passage
Soal Reading TOEFL ITP
Dalam sesi reading pada tes TOELF ITP, Anda mungkin saja menemui pertanyaan terkait penyusunan ide pada bacaan (the organization of ideas in a passage). Soal jenis ini meminta Anda untuk menentukan bagaimana ide dari suatu paragraf berhubungan dengan ide dari paragraf lainnya.
Contoh:
Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Organization of Ideas in a Passage
Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Organization of Ideas in a Passage
Pertanyaan ini tentang bagaimana informasi diususun dalam bacaan. Untuk menjawab petanyaan jenis ini, hal yang perlu dilakukan ialah dengan melihat ide pokok pada setiap paragraf di atas. 
Ide paragraf pertama: 
if asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply that it was their belief that Abner Doubleday did
Ide paragraf ke dua: 
Doubleday was given credit for this invention
Ide paragraf ke tiga:
most sports historians are in agreement that Doubleday really did not have much to do with the development of baseball.

Jika Anda mempelajari ide pokok dari paragraf pertama, Anda bisa mengetahui bahwa paragraf ke tiga menyangkal (refute) informasi yang dihadirkan (presented) pada paragraf ke dua dan pertama. 
Olehnya, jawaban paling tepat ialah pilihan jawaban (A). 
Jika masih kesulitan dalam mencari ide pokok silahkan klik Tips Menjawab Soal Reading TOEFL: Main Idea Question.

Tabel di bawah ini menguraikan informasi-informasi penting yang perlu anda ingat terkait pertanyaan yang menanyakan tentang penyusunan ide (Organization of Ideas in a Passage).

TOEFL EXERCISE 2: Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the ques­ tions that follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) 
              Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable. In fact, various managers have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have. 
              According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization. Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization to rid the organization of any possible sources of conflict. 
              The interactionist view of conflict, on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of conflict may actually take steps to stimulate conflict within the organization.
1. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented.
(B) Contrasting views of conflict are presented.
(C) Two theorists discuss the strengths and weaknesses of their views on conflict.
(D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented.
2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph?
(A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict
(B) A discussion of the weakness of the interactionist view of conflict
(C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict
(D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict

Kunci & Pembahasan:
Pembahasan Jawaban
Main Idea paragraf pertama:
various managers have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have. 
Main Idea paragraf ke dua:
According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization.
Main Idea paragraf ke tiga:
The interactionist view of conflict, on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing positive changes to occur.


Ekspresi "on the other hand" pada paragraf ke tiga menandakan adanya perbedaan ide atau pandangan yang kontrast (contrasting views atau oppsing views).  Olehnya kunci jawabannya ialah:
1. (B) Contrasting views of conflict are presented.
2. (D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict.

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4) 
              IQ or intelligence quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define.
              In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence.
              In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence.
3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph?
(A) An argument
(B) A definition
(C) An opinion
(D) A theory
4. How does the information in third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph?
(A) It represents a contrasting point of view
(B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph
(C) It represents real information rather than a premise
(D) It represents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph

Kunci & Pembahasan:
Pembahasan Jawaban
Main Idea paragraf pertama:
IQ or intelligence quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal.
Main Idea paragraf ke dua:
In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving.
Main Idea paragraf ke tiga:
In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. 
Kunci Jawaban
3. (B) A definition
Pada paragraf pertama memberi definisi (definition) terkait topik yang dibahas.
4. (A) It represents a contrasting point of view
Kita lihat pada paragraf pertama "in practice" dan pada paragraf pertama "in theory". Dapat diketahui bahwa paragraf ke tiga berlawanan (contrasting) dengan paragraf ke dua.


PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-6) 
              The largest lake in the western United States is the Great Salt Lake, an inland saltwater lake in northwestern Utah, just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it; this has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake. 
              Although the Great Salt Lake is fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and chloride—the components of salt—comprise the large majority of the lake's mineral content. 
              The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles, depending on long-term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amounts of water flowing into the lake from its feeder rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of 2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases, sometimes drastically, due to evaporation.
5. How is the information in the passage organized? 
(A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Salt Lake are discussed. 
(B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lake's salt levels are presented. 
(C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined. 
(D) The reasons for the variations in the Great Salt Lake's size are given. 
6. The third paragraph contains information on
(A) How the size of the lake affects weather conditions.
(B) The effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake.
(C) The effects of changes in the size of the lake.
(D) The causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake.

Kunci & Pembahasan:
Pembahasan Jawaban
Main Idea paragraf pertama:
Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it; this has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake. 
Main Idea paragraf ke dua:
Although the Great Salt Lake is fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans of the world.
Main Idea paragraf ke tiga:
The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles, depending on long-term weather conditions.
Kunci Jawaban
5. (A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Salt Lake are discussed.
Pada paragraf pertama memberi dua poin atau dua karakteristik (two characteristics) terkait Great Salt Lake yang akan dibahas yaitu the salt content and the size of the lake.
6. (A) How the size of the lake affects weather conditions.
Pada paragraf ke tiga membahas terkait ukuran Great Salt Lake. 

Don't Miss