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Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (agriculture development)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (agriculture development)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (agriculture development)

Both in what is now the eastern and the southwestern United States, the peoples of the Archaic era (8,000-1,000 B.C) were, in a way, already adapted to beginnings of cultivation through their intensive gathering and processing of wild plant foods. In both areas, there was a well-established ground stone tool technology, a method of pounding and grinding nuts and other plant foods, that could be adapted to newly cultivated foods. By the end of the Archaic era, people in eastern North America had domesticated certain native plants, including sunflowers; weeds called goosefoot, sumpweed, or marsh elder; and squash or gourds of some kind. These provided seeds that were important sources of carbohydrates and fat in the diet.

The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the Midwest and the Southeast, with experimentation beginning as early as 7,000 years ago and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago. Although the term “Neolithic” is not used in North American prehistory, these were the first steps toward the same major subsistence changes that took place during the Neolithic (8,000-2,000 B.C.) period elsewhere in the world.

Archaeologists debate the reasons for beginning cultivation in the eastern part of the continent. Although population and sedentary living were increasing at the time, there is little evidence that people lacked adequate wild food resources; the newly domesticated foods supplemented a continuing mixed subsistence of hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants, Increasing predictability of food supplies may have been a motive. It has been suggested that some early cultivation was for medicinal and ceremonial plants rather than for food. One archaeologist has pointed out that the early domesticated plants were all weedy species that do well in open, disturbed habitats, the kind that would form around human settlements where people cut down trees, trample the ground, deposit trash, and dig holes. It has been suggested that sunflower, sumpweed, and other plants almost domesticated themselves, that is , they thrived in human –disturbed habitats, so humans intensively collected them and began to control their distribution. Women in the Archaic communities were probably the main experimenters with cultivation, because ethnoarchaeological evidence tells us that women were the main collectors of plant food and had detailed knowledge of plants.

10. The passage mainly discusses which of the following aspects of the life of Archaic peoples?
(A) The principal sources of food that made up their diet
(B) Their development of ground stone tool technology
(C) Their development of agriculture
(D) Their distribution of work between men and women
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) Their development of agriculture
Tipe soal: Main Idea Question
Cara Jawab:: lihat kalimat pertama setiap paragraf. Temukan keyword (biasanya berulang-ulang atau berhubungan dari 1 paragraf ke paragraf lainnya) yang menjadi pembahasan utama.
Paragraf 1: Both in what is now the eastern and the southwestern United States, the peoples of the Archaic era (8,000-1,000 B.C) were, in a way, already adapted to beginnings of cultivation through their intensive gathering and processing of wild plant foods.
Paragraf 2: The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the Midwest and the Southeast, with experimentation beginning as early as 7,000 years ago and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago.
Paragraf 3: Archaeologists debate the reasons for beginning cultivation in the eastern part of the continent.

Dapat kita temukan bahwa 'cultivation' menjadi keyword dari paragraf-paragraf di atas. Pilihan jawaban C merupakan yang paling berhbungan dengan 'cultivation' yaitu agriculture.
11. The word “these” in line 13 refers to
(A) seeds
(B) river valleys
(C) the Midwest and the Southeast
(D) experimentation and domestication
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) experimentation and domestication
Tipe Soal: Reference Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang diganti menjadi sebuah pronoun)
Cara Jawab:: temukan noun yang terletak sebelum pronoun 'these'.
--> The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the Midwest and the Southeast, with experimentation beginning as early as 7,000 years ago and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago. Although the term “Neolithic” is not used in North American prehistory, these were the first steps toward the same major subsistence changes that took place during the Neolithic (8,000-2,000 B.C.) period elsewhere in the world.

Dapat kita identifikasi bahwa pilihan yang paling tepat ialah pilihan D.
12 According to the passage, when did the domestication of plants begin in North America?
(A) 7,000 years ago
(B) 4,000 to 2,000 years ago
(C) Long after the Neolithic period
(D) Before the Archaic period
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) 4,000 to 2,000 years ago
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: domestication of plants begin
--> The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the Midwest and the Southeast, with experimentation beginning as early as 7,000 years ago and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago. 

Jadi jawaban paling tepat ialah pilihan B. 

13. The word “adequate” in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) sufficient
(B) healthful
(C) varied
(D) dependable
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (A) sufficient
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

'Adequate' merupakan sinonim dari 'sufficient'.

14. According to the passage, which of the following was a possible motive for the cultivation of plants in eastern North America?
(A) Lack of enough wild food sources
(B) The need to keep trees from growing close to settlements
(C) Provision of work for an increasing population
(D) Desire for the consistent availability of food
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) Desire for the consistent availability of food

Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: motive
--> there is little evidence that people lacked adequate wild food resources. (Pilihan A)
--> Increasing predictability of food supplies may have been a motive. (Pilihan D)

Bisa ditemukan bahwa pilihan A telah dibantah dalam passage (there is little evidence ....).
15. The phrase “rather than” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) in addition to
(B) instead of
(C) as a replacement
(D) such as
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) instead of

Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

'Rather than' merupakan sinonim dari 'instead of'.

16. The plant “sumpweed” is mentioned in line 25 in order to
(A) contrast a plant with high nutritional value with one with little nutritional value
(B) explain the medicinal use of a plant
(C) clarify which plants grew better in places where trees were not cut down
(D) provide an example of a plant that was easy to domesticate
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) provide an example of a plant that was easy to domesticate

Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: sumpweed
--> By the end of the Archaic era, people in eastern North America had domesticated certain native plants, including sunflowers; weeds called goosefoot, sumpweed, or marsh elder; and squash or gourds of some kind. 

'Including' menunjukkan sebuah contoh (example). Pilihan tepat ialah D.

17. The word “thrived” in line 26 is closest in meaning to
(A) stayed
(B) originated
(C) grew well
(D) died out
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) grew well
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

'Thrived' merupakan sinonim dari 'grew well''.

18. According to the passage, which of the following is true about all early domesticated plants?
(A) They were varieties of weeds.
(B) They were moved from disturbed areas.
(C) They succeeded in areas with many trees.
(D) They failed to grow in trampled or damaged areas.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (A) They were varieties of weeds.

Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: early domesticated plants
--> One archaeologist has pointed out that the early domesticated plants were all weedy species that do well in open, disturbed habitats, the kind that would form around human settlements where people cut down trees, trample the ground, deposit trash, and dig holes.

19. According to the passage, it is thought that most of the people who began cultivating plants were
(A) medical workers
(B) leaders of ceremonies
(C) women
(D) hunters
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) women
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword:  people who began cultivating plants were
--> Women in the Archaic communities were probably the main experimenters with cultivation, because ethnoarchaeological evidence tells us that women were the main collectors of plant food and had detailed knowledge of plants.
'experimenters with cultivation' mewakili makna 'began cultivating plants'.

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