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Sunday, May 4, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Text 2 by Kaplan)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Text 2 by Kaplan)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Text 2 by Kaplan)

The Quakers, also called the Society of Friends, are a Christian group that arose in the mid-17th century in England and the American colonies. Quakerism came into being in England on or around 1652, when George Fox began to organize converts to preach his doctrine of "God in every man". The Friends were silent at their meetings, waiting for the "inward light". They believed people should sense God inside of themselves, without church buildings, appointed preachers, written liturgy, or many of the outward trappings associated with Christianity.

The Society of Friends is part of the left wing of the 17th -century English Puritan movement; in America, Quakers were persecuted by Puritans. Quakers experienced much official persecuted by Puritans. Quakers experienced much official persecution, including imprisonment and execution, for their belief that worship of God should be very personal. The term "Quaker" may refer to their penchant for "quaking" during religious services, or it may be a derogatory reference to supposed Quaker cowardliness and belief in pacifism.

Quakerism in the American colonies existed mainly in the northeast. The American Quaker population surged after 1682 when Quaker William Penn founded the state of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and a "holy experiment" in religious toleration. Quakers were prominent and powerful in the Pennsylvania state government in the period before the American Revolution. During and after the Revolution, Friends concerned themselves with the plight of Native Americans. They also worked with escaped slaves and for the abolition of slavery. They continued to be known for their efforts at social reform.

13.  In which of the following publications would this passage be most likely to appear?
(A) an anthology of English literature
(B) an introductory American history book
(C) a book about Eastern religions
(D) a basic math textbook
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Cara menjawab soal seperti ini (menanyakn topik bacaan) ialah cukup dengan membaca kalimat pertama setiap paragraf. Kadang juga kalimat terakhir dari paragraf pertama dan kalimat pertama untuk paragraf selanjutnya.

14.  The word 'their' in line 4 refers to:
(A) trappings
(B) preachers
(C) religious services
(D) the Friends
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Soal ini terkait 'pronoun referent' yang menanyakan ke noun yang mana sebuah pronoun (kata ganti) menunjuk.
Untuk menjawab soal seperti ini, Anda mesti melihat kata-kata sebelum 'their' yang berbentuk jamak.
--> The Friends were silent at their meetings, waiting for the "inward light". 
Nampak bahwa hanya kata 'the friends' yang terletak sebelum 'their' sementara pilihan lain terletak setelahnya. 

15.  The word 'persecuted' in line 10 in closest in meaning to:
(A) scrutinized
(B) lauded
(C) harassed
(D) believed
Pembahasan Jawaban:
scrutinized --> to examine something very carefully in order to discover information
laud --> to praise
harass --> to continue to annoy or upset someone over a period of time
prosecute --> to treat someone unfairly or cruelly over a long period of time because of their race, religion, or political beliefs or to annoy someone by refusing to leave them alone
Dari bebarapa pengertian di atas kata yang paling sesuai dg makna 'persecuted' ialah 'harassed'.

16.  Where in the passage does the author give an example of Quaker involvement in social issues?
(A) lines 3 - 4
(B) lines 9 - 10
(C) lines 16 - 17
(D) lines 19 - 20
Pembahasan Jawaban:
-> During and after the Revolution, Friends concerned themselves with the plight of Native Americans. (lines 16 - 17)
Pertanyaan ini meminta Anda untuk menentukan di mana (baris ke berapa) suatu informasi ditemukan atau dibahas. 
Cara menjawab soal yg seperti ini ialah memahami terlebih dahulu ide pokok yang ada dipertanyaan. Kemudian eliminasilah jawaban satu persatu. 
Metode yang baik digunakan ialah 'skimming'. Temukan 'keyword' pada pertanyaan dan carilah pada setiap baris (sesua dg pilihan jawaban). 

17.  Which of the following would be an example of "the outward trappings associated with Christianity" referred to in lines 6 - 7?
(A) clergy
(B) silent, leaderless worship
(C) concern for social reform
(D) the doctrine of "God in every man"
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Soal ini sedikit mudah untuk ditemukan pada text (bacaan) karena keywordnya 'the outward trappings associated with Christianity' pada pertanyaan 100% ditemukan pada bacaan. 
--> They believed people should sense God inside of themselves, without church buildings, appointed preachers, written liturgy, or many of the outward trappings associated with Christianity.
church buildings, preachers, liturgy berhubungan dengan clergy. 

18.  It can be inferred from the passage that early Quakers experienced official persecution because:
(A) they were known for "quaking" during religious services
(B) they helped found the state of Pennsylvania
(C) they came to America from England
(D) their religious beliefs were considered subversive
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Keyword pada pertanyaan ialah 'persecution'. dari teks bacaan dapat ditemukan kalimat yg memuatnya.
--> 'Quakers experienced much official persecution, including imprisonment and execution, for their belief that worship of God should be very personal. '

19.  Why does the author mention 'execution' in line 11?
(A) It is an example of the persecution Quakers faced
(B) It is an outward trapping of Christianity
(C) This serves as an example of William Penn's policies
(D) Many religions were concerned with this issue
Pembahasan Jawaban:
--> Quakers experienced much official persecution, including imprisonment and execution, for their belief that worship of God should be very personal.
including = termasuk

20.  The paragraph after this passage would most likely be about:
(A) the decline of the Quaker population since World War I
(B) The similarities and differences between Quakers and Puritans
(C) Ways in which Quakers today show concern for others
(D) Social reforms enacted by Quakers during American Revolution
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Soal ini menanyakan topik apa yang akan menjadi pembahasan pada paragraf selanjutnya. Anda mesti menarik kesimpulan secara tersirat (not directly stated).
Cara menjawab soal ini ialah dengan melihat bagian akhir dari kalimat akhir pada paragraf terakhir.
--> They continued to be known for their efforts at social reform.
sesuai dengan 'Ways in which Quakers today show concern for others'

21.  From the passage, it can be inferred that the Puritans were:
(A) Friends
(B) persecuted
(C) intolerant
(D) executed
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Keyword dari pertanyaan ialah 'Puritants'
--> Quakers were persecuted by Puritans. Quakers experienced much official persecuted by Puritans.
Dari kalimat dari baccan yang memuat 'Puritants' tampak bahwa 'Puritants' tidak punya toleransi yg baik (intolerant).

22.  The word 'penchant' in the line 12 most nearly means:
(A) appreciation
(B) propensity
(C) disinclination
(D) proposition
Pembahasan Jawaban:
penchant --> a liking for, an enjoyment of, or a habit of doing something, especially something that other people might not like
propensity --> a tendency towards a particular way of behaving, especially a bad one
disinclination --> a feeling of not wanting to do something

23.  Why did the American Quaker population surge after William Penn founded Pennsylvania?
(A) Pennsylvania tolerated the Quaker religion
(B) Pennsylvania forbade religions other than Quakerism
(C) The Pennsylvania government tried to help escaped slaves
(D) Social reform was important to most Americans
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Keyword dari pertanyaan ialah 'Quaker population surge'
--> The American Quaker population surged after 1682 when Quaker William Penn founded the state of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and a "holy experiment" in religious toleration.


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