Saturday, May 3, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 4)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 4)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 4)

16. Lake trout, fish usually finding in deep, cool lakes, are greenish gray and are covered with pale spots.
Kunci Jawaban: finding --> found
Topik Materi: Kesalahan dalam Past Participle dan Present Participle
Permasalahan: Kesalahan dalam soal TOEFL ialah di mana letak past participle dan present participle ditukar. Kadang yang dimunculkan di soal ialah past participle sementara yang dibutuhkan ialah present participle. Kadang pula soal menggunakan present participle padahal yang dibutuhkan ialah past participle.
Penjelasan: Past Participle dan Present Participle dalam kalimat berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menjelaskan noun sebelumnya. Present Participle bermakna aktif sedangkan Past Participle bermakna pasif.
Solusi dalam menjawab soal ini ialah dengan memahami makna dari noun dan particple yang menjelaskannya.
- fish usually finding in deep, cool lakes = ikan-ikan yang biasanya menemukan di danau-danau dingin yang dalam {Present Participle bermakna aktif)
- fish usually found in deep, cool lakes = ikan-ikan yang biasanya ditemukan di danau-danau dingin yang dalam {Past Participle bermakna pasif)

Bagaimana jika Anda sulit untuk memahami terjemahannya?
Tips Solusi
Jika noun yang dijelaskan berupa orang, biasanya digunakan present participle.
Jika noun yang dijelaskan bukanberupa orang (benda atau hewan), biasanya digunakan pastparticiple.

17. During the first 20 years of the space age, the United States spent more than 90 billion dollars onto its civilian and military space programs.
Pembahasan Jawaban: onto --> on
Topik Materi: Kesalahan dalam Preposition
Spend + on

18. Vitamin A and C and most of the B vitamins are retain in foods that have been canned.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are retain --> are retained
Topic: Be + V III (Passive Voice)

19. Ella Baker spent her adult life working for social change by lecturing, writing, teacher,and organizing adult literacy programs.
Pembahasan Jawaban: teacher --> teaching
Topic: Parallel Structure in Gerund

20. Gold can combined with silver in any proportion, but alloys with 50 to 60 percent silver are the strongest.
Pembahasan Jawaban: can combined --> can be combined
Topic: Modal + be + V III / Modal + V I

21. The camera obscure, a lensless precursor of the photographic camera, consists of a darkened chamber, with light pass into it through a single tiny hole.
Pembahasan Jawaban: pass --> passing atau that passes
Topic: Reduction in adjective clause atau present participle

22. Lumber production was the main industry in Michigan until the early 1900`s, which the automobile industry was established in Detroit.
Pembahasan Jawaban: which --> when
Topic: adjective clause

23. Twenty minutes of vigorous exercise every day is very effect in helping a person to maintain physical fitness.
Pembahasan Jawaban: effect --> effective
Topic: Pemilihan kata (Word Choice)

24. It was not until after Emily Dickenson’ s death in 1886 that, hidden away in her bureau, overly one thousand unpublished poems were discovered.
Pembahasan Jawaban: overly --> over
Topic: Pemilihan kata (Word Choice)

25. Rocks form within Earth are called intrusive or plutonic rocks because the magma form which they form often intrudes into neighboring rock.
Pembahasan Jawaban: form --> formed
Topic: Reduction in adjective clause atau past participle

26. Most fish swim by moving their tails from side to side, with little relatively body undulation.
Pembahasan Jawaban: little relatively --> relatively little
Topic: Posisi Adverb yang menjelaskan Adjective
Adverb + Adjective bukan adjective + adverb

27. In its life expectancy, although in most other things, the Sun is a typical star.
Pembahasan Jawaban: although --> and
Topic: Pemilihan conjunction
Although +

28. Machines need energy to function, whether it is animal or human muscle, wind or waters currents, or heat-generated energy, such as steam.
Pembahasan Jawaban: waters --> water
Topic: Uncountable Noun

29. The modern violin, the smallest and versatile instrument in the violin family, is tuned in fifths and produces tones ranging over four and a half octaves.
Pembahasan Jawaban: versatile --> most versatile
Topic: Superlative Degree

30 Norman Rockwell was a meticulous artist who paintings portrayed family incidents and well-defined characters with a wealth of supporting details.
Pembahasan Jawaban: who --> whose
Topic: Adjective clause

31 By the late twelve century, stained glass had emerged in Europe as an integral part of Gothic architecture.
Pembahasan Jawaban: twelve --> twelfth
Topic: Noun phrase --> Adjective + noun
twelve (noun) & twelfth (adjective)

32 The United States, a nation with a highly diversified economy, is a major exporter of grain, fruit, chemical, aircraft, and cars.
Pembahasan Jawaban: chemical --> chemicals
Topic: 1. Countable noun; 2. Penggunaan article; 3. Parallel Structure; 4. Noun

33 Canada began cultivation wheat intensively in 1910, which led to a demand for tools, machines, housing, and building supplies.
Pembahasan Jawaban: cultivation --> cultivating
Topic: Begun + Gerund

34 Magnesium has little structural strength and must be alloyed with another metals such as aluminum and zinc when it is to be subjected to stress.
Pembahasan Jawaban: another --> other
Topic: Penggunaan another, other, others, the other

35 Orchid seeds take up to eighteen months to mature before they sprout, and the young plants may need another two years to reach at the flowering stage.
Pembahasan Jawaban: reach at --> reach
Topic: Intransitive Verb -tanpa ada preposition memisahkan antar verb dan object

36 The oldest public edifice in Washington D.C, the White House was originally constructed in the 1790`s, also has been rebuilt or extensively remodeled three times since.
Pembahasan Jawaban: also --> and
Topic: connector
Dua clause butuh 1 connector. 'also' bukanlah connector tapi adverb

37 Mitosis is the normal process by which a cell divides, each new cell ending up with a same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Pembahasan Jawaban: a --> the
Topic: a number vs the number
a number = a lot of
the number = total / quantity

38.There are a series of large-scale wind patterns all over Earth are called prevailing winds that have a direct effect on weather and climate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are called --> that are called atau called
Topic: Adjective clause (reduction) atau past participle

39.In June, 1846, near Sacramento, California, a number of new settlers rebelled in the Bear Flag Revolt and proclaiming California an independent republic.
Pembahasan Jawaban: proclaiming --> proclaimed
Topic: Parallel structure --> rebelled & proclaimed

40.A mutation is result of a definite biochemical change in a gene that causes the offspring to vary in some characteristic from the parents.
Pembahasan Jawaban: is result --> is the result
Topic: Article / noun
'result' merupakan countable noun yang singular. Sebuah countable noun yang singular tidak dibolehkan berdiri sendiri tanpa adanya article atau determiner sebelumnya.

--> Penjelasan soal ini akan dibahas lebih jauh lagi ke depannya. :)

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