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Sunday, May 11, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Ant Forage)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Ant Forage)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Ant Forage)
Many ants forage across the countryside in large numbers and undertake mass migrations; these activities proceed because one ant lays a trail on the ground for the others to follow. As a worker ant returns home after finding a source of food, it marks the route by intermittently touching its stinger to the ground and depositing a tiny amount of trail pheromone—a mixture of chemicals that delivers diverse messages as the context changes. These trails incorporate no directional information and may be followed by other ants in either direction. 

Unlike some other messages, such as the one arising from a dead ant, a food trail has to be kept secret from members of other species. It is not surprising then that ant species use a wide variety of compounds as trail pheromones. Ants can be extremely sensitive to these signals. Investigators working with the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant Atta texana calculated that one milligram of this substance would suffice to lead a column of ants three times around Earth. 

The vapor of the evaporating pheromone over the trail guides an ant along the way, and the ant detects this signal with receptors in its antennae. A trail pheromone will evaporate to furnish the highest concentration of vapor right over the trail, in what is called a vapor space. In following the trail, the ant moves to the right and left, oscillating from side to side across the line of the trail itself, bringing first one and then the other antenna into the vapor space. As the ant moves to the right, its left antenna arrives in the vapor space. The signal it receives causes it to swing to the left, and the ant then pursues this new course until its right antenna reaches the vapor space. It then swings back to the right, and so weaves back and forth down the trail.

20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The mass migration of ants
(B) How ants mark and follow a chemical trail
(C) Different species of ants around the world
(D) The information contained in pheromones
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) How ants mark and follow a chemical trail
Tipe Soal: Main Idea Question
Cara Jawab: Cukup lihat baris pertama setiap paragraf

Paragraf 1: Many ants forage across the countryside in large numbers and undertake mass migrations; these activities proceed because one ant lays a trail on the ground for the others to follow.
Paragraf 2: Unlike some other messages, such as the one arising from a dead ant, a food trail has to be kept secret from members of other species.
Paragaf 3: The vapor of the evaporating pheromone over the trail guides an ant along the way, and the ant detects this signal with receptors in its antennae.

Cara termudah untuk tahu, tanpa berpikir panjang: Lihat keyword (kata yang terulang). Kita lihat terdapat "ants" dan "trail". Dari pilihan jawaban sangat jelas pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai (Pilihan B).
21. The word “forage” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) look up
(B) walk toward
(C) revolve around
(D) search for food
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) search for food
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan. Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

forage: to go from place to place searching, especially for food
Jadi, pilihan jawaban yg sesuai / sinonim ialah jawaban D.
22. The word “intermittently” in live 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) periodically
(B) incorrectly
(C) rapidly
(D) roughly
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (A) periodically
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan. Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

intermittent: not happening regularly or continuously; stopping and starting repeatedly or with periods in between
Jadi, pilihan jawaban yg sesuai / sinonim ialah jawaban A.
23. The phrase “the one” in line 8 refers to a single
(A) message
(B) dead ant
(C) food trail
(D) species
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban:  (A) message
Tipe Soal: Reference Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang diganti menjadi sebuah pronoun / siapa atau apa yang dirujuk oleh kata ganti tertentu)
Cara Jawab: Idetifikasi Noun sebelum Pronoun.

Unlike some other messages, such as the one ... (Line 8)
Kita lihat Noun yang sangat jelas berada di belakang 'the one" ialah "message".
24. According to the passage, why do ants use different compounds as trail pheromones?
(A) To reduce their sensitivity to some chemicals
(B) To attract different types of ants
(C) To protect their trail from other species
(D) To indicate how far away the food is
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) To protect their trail from other species
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: different compounds

Unlike some other messages, such as the one arising from a dead ant, a food trail has to be kept secret from members of other species. It is not surprising then that ant species use a wide variety of compounds as trail pheromones. (Paragraph 2)

a wide variety = different (keyword)
has to be kept secret from members of other specie = to protect their trail from other species (answer key)
25. The author mentions the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant in line 11 to point out
(A) how little pheromone is needed to mark a trail
(B) the different types of pheromones ants can produce
(C) a type of ant that is common in many parts of the world
(D) that certain ants can produce up to one milligram of pheromone
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (A) how little pheromone is needed to mark a trail
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant

Investigators working with the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant Atta texana calculated that one milligram of this substance would suffice to lead a column of ants three times around Earth. (line 11-13)

one milligram of this substance = how little pheromone
would suffice to lead a column of ants = is needed to mark a trail
26. According to the passage, how are ants guided by trail pheromones?
(A) They concentrate on the smell of food.
(B) They follow an ant who is familiar with the trail
(C) They avoid the vapor spaces by moving in a straight line.
(D) They sense the vapor through their antennae.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) They sense the vapor through their antennae.
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: guided

The vapor of the evaporating pheromone over the trail guides an ant along the way, and the ant detects this signal with receptors in its antennae. (line 14-15)

the ant detects this signal with receptors in its antenna =  They sense the vapor through their antennae.
27. The word “furnish” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(A) include
(B) provide
(C) cover
(D) select
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) provide
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan. Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

furnish: to provide with furniture; to put furniture in
Sangat jelas, jawabannya ialah B (provide).
28. The word “oscillating “ in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) falling
(B) depositing
(C) swinging
(D) starting
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) swinging
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan. Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat.

oscillating: to move repeatedly from one position to another
swing: to move easily and without interruption backwards and forwards or from one side to the other, especially from a fixed point, or to cause something or someone to do this
29. According to the passage, the highest amount of pheromone vapor is found
(A) in the receptors of the ants
(B) just above the trail
(C) in the source of food
(D) under the soil along the trail
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) just above the trail
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
Keyword: highest amount

A trail pheromone will evaporate to furnish the highest concentration of vapor right over the trail, in what is called a vapor space. (line 16-17

the highest amount = the highest concentration (keyword)
over the trail = just above the trail (kunci jawaban)
Note:
Untuk pertanyaan kosakata, jika kata yang ditanyakan tidak Anda ketahui sama sekali, salah satu cara mendapatkan jawaban yg benar ialah dengan memasukkan 1 per 1 kosakata dari pilihan jawaban. Pilihlah jawaban yang maknanya lebih jelas / sesuai dengan konteks kalimat. Cara ini terbilang sulit dan kurang efisien; butuh waktu dan butuh ketangkasan dalam penerjemahan.

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