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Monday, May 12, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Native American Literature)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Native American Literature)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading (Native American Literature)=
Native Americans probably arrived from Asia in successive waves over several millennia, crossing a plain hundreds of miles wide that now lies inundated by 160 feet of water released by melting glaciers. For several periods of time, the first beginning around 60,000 B.C. and the last ending around 7,000 B.C., this land bridge was open. The first people traveled in the dusty trails of the animals they hunted. They brought with them not only their families, weapons, and tools but also a broad metaphysical understanding, sprung from dreams and visions and articulated in myth and song, which complemented their scientific and historical knowledge of the lives of animals and of people. All this they shaped in a variety of languages, bringing into being oral literatures of power and beauty.

Contemporary readers, forgetting the origins of western epic, lyric, and dramatic forms, are easily disposed to think of “literature” only as something written. But on reflection it becomes clear that the more critically useful as well as the more frequently employed sense of the term concerns the artfulness of the verbal creation, not its mode of presentation. Ultimately, literature is aesthetically valued, regardless of language, culture, or mode of presentation, because some significant verbal achievement results from the struggle in words between tradition and talent. Verbal art has the ability to shape out a compelling inner vision in some skillfully crafted public verbal form.

Of course, the differences between the written and oral modes of expression are not without consequences for an understanding of Native American literature. The essential difference is that a speech event is an evolving communication, an “emergent form,” the shape, functions, and aesthetic values of which become more clearly realized over the course of the performance. In performing verbal art, the performer assumes responsibility for the manner as well as the content of the performance, while the audience assumes the responsibility for evaluating the performer’s competence in both areas. It is this intense mutual engagement that elicits the display of skill and shapes the emerging performance. Where written literature provides us with a tradition of texts, oral literature offers a tradition of performances.

30. According to the passage, why did the first people who came to North America leave their homeland?
(A) They were hoping to find a better climate.
(B) They were seeking freedom.
(C) They were following instructions given in a dream.
(D) They were looking for food.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) They were looking for food.
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan (Untuk memudahkan, Anda bisa mentukan keyword pertanyaannya terlebih dahulu).
Keyword: the first people, North Americaleave, homeland

The first people traveled in the dusty trails of the animals they hunted. (line 4-5)

in the dusty trails of the animals they hunted = (D) They were looking for food (answer key)
31. The phrase “are easily disposed” in line 11 is closet in meaning to
(A) demonstrate reluctance
(B) readily encourage others
(C) have a tendency
(D) often fail
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) have a tendency
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan.

disposed: to be willing or likely to do something
tendency: If someone has a tendency to do or like something, they will probably do it or like it
32.The word “Ultimately” in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) frequently
(B) normally
(C) whenever possible
(D) in the end
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) in the end
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan.

Ultimately: finally, after a series of things have happened
33.The word “compelling” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) joyous
(B) intricate
(C) competing
(D) forceful
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) forceful
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary-in-Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan.

compelling: 1. If a reason, argument, etc. is compelling, it makes you believe it or accept it because it is so strong; 2. very exciting and interesting and making you want to watch or listen
34. What is the main point of the second paragraph?
(A) Public performance is essential to verbal art.
(B) Oral narratives are a valid form of literature.
(C) Native Americans have a strong oral tradition in art.
(D) The production of literature provides employment for many artists.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) Oral narratives are a valid form of literature.
Tipe Soal: Main Idea Question (1 Paragrah)
Cara Jawab: Fokus ke kalimat pertama dan kalimat akhir paragraf. Dalam kasus paragraf ini difokuskan juga pada kalimat ke dua karena hadirnya kata "but" yang menandakan adanya bantahan pada kalimat pertama.

Contemporary readers, forgetting the origins of western epic, lyric, and dramatic forms, are easily disposed to think of “literature” only as something written. But on reflection it becomes clear that the more critically useful as well as the more frequently employed sense of the term concerns the artfulness of the verbal creation, not its mode of presentation. (the 1st & 2nd sentence)
Verbal art has the ability to shape out a compelling inner vision in some skillfully crafted public verbal form. (the last sentence)

Cara termudah untuk tahu, tanpa berpikir panjang: Lihat keyword (kata yang terulang) dan kata yg menjadi pembahasan utama. Kita lihat terdapat "verbal" dan "literature". Dari pilihan jawaban sangat jelas pilihan jawaban yang paling sesuai (Pilihan B).

verbal = oral
35. What can be inferred about the nature of the Native American literature discussed in the passage?
(A) It reflects historical and contemporary life in Asia.
(B) Its main focus is on daily activities.
(C) It is based primarily on scientific knowledge.
(D) It is reshaped each time it is experienced.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) It is reshaped each time it is experienced.
Tipe Soal: Inference Question (Pertanyaan ini meminta Anda untuk menebak atau menarik kesimpulan berdasarkan informasi dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Karena jawaban dari pertanyaan ini tidak disediakan secara langsung (tersurat), Anda mesti menarik kesimpulan berdasarkan informasi yg tersedia di bacaan. Banyak peserta tes TOEFL menemukan pertanyaan jenis ini yang merupakan soal tersulit.
Keyword: the nature of the Native American literature
36. According to the passage, what responsibility does the audience of a verbal art performance have ?
(A) They provide financial support for performances.
(B) They judge the quality of the content and presentation.
(C) They participate in the performance by chanting responses.
(D) They determine the length of the performance by requesting a continuation.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) They judge the quality of the content and presentation.
Tipe Soal: Factual Question (Pertanyaan seperti ini menginginkan Anda untuk menemukan informasi spesifik yg ada dalam passage).
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan (Untuk memudahkan, Anda bisa mentukan keyword pertanyaannya terlebih dahulu).
Keyword: responsibility, the audience of a verbal art

... while the audience assumes the responsibility for evaluating the performer’s competence in both areas. (line 23 -24)

evaluating the performer’s competence both areas = (B) They judge the quality of the content and presentation (answer key)
37. Which of the following is NOT true of the Native American literature discussed in the passage?
(A) It involves acting.
(B) It has ancient origins.
(C) It has a set form.
(D) It expresses an inner vision.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban:  (C) It has a set form.
Tipe Soal: Negative Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda untuk menentukan pilihan jawaban yg mana yg TIDAK benar sesuai dengan passage)
Cara Jawab: Scan bacaan untuk menemukan pilihan jawaban mana yang BENAR atau DISEBUTKAN dalam bacaan. Kadang 3 pilihan jawaban terdapat dalam satu atau dua kalimat; kadang juga tersebar pada seluruh bacaan. Jawaban yg mesti Anda pilih, tentu saja, pilihan jawaban yg tidak sesuai dengan informasi dalam bacaan. Soal jenis ini butuh waktu yang agak lama dibanding soal jenis lainnya. Olehnya, Anda bisa mengerjakan soal yang lebih mudah / cepat terlebih dahulu dan kemudian kembali ke soal ini.

The essential difference is that a speech event is an evolving communication, an “emergent form,” the shape, functions, and aesthetic values of which become more clearly realized over the course of the performance.  (line 19-21)

emergent form X a set form (Berlawanan)
38. What can be inferred from the passage about the difference between written and oral literature?
(A) Written literature reflects social values better than oral literature does.
(B) Written literature involves less interaction between audience and creator during the creative progress than oral literature does.
(C) Written literature usually is not based on historical events, whereas oral literature is.
(D) Written literature is not as highly respected as oral literature is.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) Written literature involves less interaction between audience and creator during the creative progress than oral literature does.
Tipe Soal: Inference Question (Pertanyaan ini meminta Anda untuk menebak atau menarik kesimpulan berdasarkan informasi dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Karena jawaban dari pertanyaan ini tidak disebutkan secara langsung (tersirat), Anda mesti menarik kesimpulan berdasarkan informasi yg tersedia di bacaan. Banyak peserta tes TOEFL menemukan pertanyaan jenis ini yang merupakan soal tersulit.

Keyword: the difference between written and oral literature
39. What is the author’s attitude toward Native American literature?
(A) Admiring of its form
(B) Critical of the cost of its production
(C) Amused by its content
(D) Skeptical about its origins
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (A) Admiring of its form
Tipe Soal: Attitude Question (Pertanyaan ini meminta Anda untuk menentukan perasaan penulis terhadap bahasa yg digunakan dalam menyampaikan topik bacaan)
Cara Jawab: Identifikasi kosakata yg digunakan oleh penulis apakah berciri positif, negatif, atau netral.

All this they shaped in a variety of languages, bringing into being oral literatures of power and beauty.

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