Friday, April 25, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 3 by Barron's)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 3 by Barron's)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Model Test 3 by Barron's)

1. In simple animals, .......... reflex movement or involuntary response to stimuli.
(A) behavior mostly
(B) most is behavior
(C) most behavior is
(D) the most behavior
Pembahasan Jawaban: (C) Most digunakan sebelum noncount noun untuk mengekspresikan suatu kuantitas yang lebih besar dari sentengah. Singular verb berpasagan dengan noncount noun (sebagai subject). Pilihan A tidak mempunyai verb. Pilihan B, verb terletak sebelum bukan sesudah noun. Pilihan D, the digunakan sebelum most.

2. Although the whether in Martha's Vineyard isn't .......... to have a year-around tourist season, it has become a favorite summer resort.
(A) goodly enough
(B) good enough
(C) good as enough
(D) enough good
Pembahasan Jawaban: (B) Sebuah adjective digunakan sebelum enough yang bermakna cukup. Pada pilhan (A), kata goodly tidak sesuai dengan aturan grammar. Bentuk adverb dari good ialah well bukan goodly. Pilihan C salah karena as tidak dibutuhkan dan salah. Pilihan D, adjective digunakan setelah bukan sebelum enough.

3. According to the wave theory, .......... population of the Americas may have been the result of a number of separate migrations.
(A) the
(B) their
(C) that
(D) whose
Pembahasan Jawaban: the dapat digunakan sebelum noncount yang diikuti sebuah qualifying phrase. Population seharunya the population sebelum qualifying phrase 'of the Americas'.

4. It is presumed that governing the sharing of food influenced .......... that the earliest cultures evolved.
(A) that the way
(B) is the way
(C) the way
(D) which way
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective clause menjelaskan noun dalam main clause. that the earliest cultures evolved menjelaskan the way. 

5. Calculus, .......... elegant and economical symbolic system, can reduce complex problems to simple terms.
(A) it is an
(B) that an
(C) an
(D) is an
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan Verb sudah ada. Dari posisi phrase 'elegant and economical symbolic system' bisa kita deteksi bahwa phrase ini merupakan appositive atau penjelasan tambahan bagi subject 'calculus'.

6. Canada does not require that U.S. citizens obtain passports to enter the country, and .......... .
(A) Mexico does neither
(B) Mexico doesn't either
(C) neither Mexico does
(D) either does Mexico
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada dua bentuk untuk menyatakan negatif dalam bentuk soal seperti ini:
1. Mexico doesn't either.
2. Neither does Mexico.

7. The poet .......... just beginning to be recognized as an important influence at the time of his death.
(A) being Walt Whitman
(B) who was Walt Whitman
(C) Walt Whitman
(D) Walt Whitman was
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb.

8. ........... the formation of the sun, the planets, and other stars began with the condensation of an interstellar cloud.
(A) It accepted that
(B) Accepted that
(C) It is accepted that
(D) That is accepted
Pembahasan Jawaban: its is accepted that (diakui bahwa) .....
Cara lain: kita lihat bahwa kalimat di soal sudah terdapat 1 clause lengkap 'the formation of the sun, the planets, and other stars began with the condensation of an interstellar cloud' jadi kita butuhkan ialah clause lain beserta connectornya. Ingat dua clause butuh 1 connector. 3 clause butuh 2 connector.

9. As a general rule, the standard of living .......... by the average output of each person in society.
(A) is fixed
(B) fixed
(C) has fixed
(D) fixes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas kehilangan verb. Kita pakai passive voice --> ditandai adanya kata 'by'.

10. The Consumer Price Index lists .......... .
(A) how much costs every car
(B) how much does every car cost
(C) how much every car costs
(D) how much are every car cost
Pembahasan Jawaban: Pilihan A dan D hanya digunakan dalam bentuk question. Pilihan D sangat jelas salahnya karena 'are' untuk plural sedangkan 'every' menandakan singular. Pilihan D salah karena seharusnya S + Verb bukan sebaliknya.

11. The Ford Theater where Lincoln was shot .......... .
(A) must restore
(B) must be restoring
(C) must have been restored
(D) must restored
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan adalah kata kerja dari subject 'The Ford Theater'. 'where Lincoln was shot' merupakan adjective clause yang menjelaskan subject 'The Ford Theater'.

12. Fast-food restaurants have become popular because many working people want .......... .
(A) to eat quickly and cheaply
(B) eating quickly and cheaply
(C) eat quickly and cheaply
(D) the eat quickly and cheaply
Pembahasan Jawaban: want + to infinitive

13. After seeing the movie Centennial, .......... .
(A) the book was red by many people
(B) the book made many people want to read it
(C) many people wanted to read the book
(D) the reading of the book interested many people
Pembahasan Jawaban: After seeing the movie Centennial (Setelah menyaksikan film Centennial), Banyak orang .... (many people wanted to read the book)
Cara lain: Materi ini masuk dalam reduction in adjective clause (ke dua-dua clause mesti mempunyai subject yang sama baru dibenarkan untuk melakukan reduction (pengurangan / penghilangan).

14. .........., Carl Sandburg is also well-known for his multivolume biography of Lincoln.
(A) An eminent American poet
(B) He is an eminent American poet
(C) An eminent American poet who is
(D) Despite an eminent American poet
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan Verb kalimat di atas sudah lengkap jadi kita hanya butuh penjelas dari subject  'Carl Sandburg' (appositive).

15. The examiner made us .......... our identification in order to be admitted to the test center.
(A) showing
(B) show
(C) showed
(D) to show
Pembahasan Jawaban: made + verb 1 murni
Materi ini masuk dalam "Causative Verb" --> Causative verb + V 1 murni
Causative verb: make, have, help

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