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Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

16. Light can travels from the Sun to the Earth in eight minutes and twenty seconds.
Pembahasan Jawaban: travels --> travel
Modal + Verb 1 murni tanpa embel-embel: Modal (can) + verb 1 (travel)

17. Every human typically have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in most cells.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have --> has
Subject Verb Agreement: every termasuk dalam kategori singular. Jadi butuh verb yang singular (has).

18. Most sedimentary rocks start forming when grains of clay, silt, or sandy settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans.
Pembahasan Jawaban: sandy (adjective) --> sand (noun)
Parallel Structure: noun, noun, noun --> clay (noun ), salt (noun), sand (noun)

19. The total thickness of the ventricular walls of the heart are about three times that of the atria.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is
Subject Verb Agreement: Singular Subject (thickness) + Singular Verb (is)

20. The type of jazz known as "swing" was introduced by Duke Ellington when he wrote and records "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing."
Pembahasan Jawaban: records (verb 1 + s) --> recorded (Verb 2)
Parallel Structure (tense): wrote (verb 2) + recorded (verb 2)
- Verb 2 = past tense (lampau)
- Verb 1 = prsent tense (sekarang)

21. The bones of mammals, not alike those of other vertebrates, show a high degree of differentiation.
Pembahasan Jawaban: not like --> unlike
alike digunakan pada akhir kalimat / klausa

22. The neocortex has evolved more recently then other layers of the brain.
Pembahasan Jawaban: then --> than
Comparative Degree: more + than bukan more + then 

23. The United States receives a large amount of revenue from taxation of a tobacco products.
Pembahasan Jawaban: of a --> of
perhatikan kata products, terdapat s yang menandakan plural (lebih dari 1 produk).

24. Much fats are composed of one molecule of glycerin combined with three molecules of fatty acids.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Much --> many
Much + uncountable noun (tanpa tambahan -s)
many + countable noun (plural)

25. The capital of the Confederacy was originally in Mobile, but they were moved to Richmond.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> it was
Pronoun reference: they (plural) seharusnya it (singular) kembali ke subject kalimat yang singular (the capital)

26. A pearl develops when a tiny grain of sand or stone or some another irritant accidentally enters into the shell of a pearl oyster.
Pembahasan Jawaban: another --> other
some + other

27. The English horn is an alto oboe with a pitch one-fifth lower than the soprano oboe.
the --> that of
Comparison degree: yang dibandingkan ialah "a pitch one-fifth" bukan alto & oboe.

28. In the Milky Way galaxy, the most recent observed supernova appeared in 1604.
Pembahasan Jawaban: recent --> recently
Adverb + adjective + noun: recently (adverb) + observed (adjective) + supernova (noun)

29. Never in the history of humanity has there been more people living on this relatively small planet.
Pembahasan Jawaban: has (singular) --> have (plural)
Kalimat di ats merupakan kalimat inversion (pembalikan: V + S); ditandai adanya negartive expression (never) di awal kalimat. Subejct kalimat ialah people (plural).

30. Because of the mobility of Americans today, it is difficult for they to put down real roots.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> them
they digunakan sebagai subject sementara them sebagai object. dalam kalimat di atas them digunakn sebagai objetc dari preposition (for).

31. For five years after the Civil War, Robert E. Lee served to president of Washington College, which was later called Washington and Lee.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to --> as
Pasangan phrase: served + as

32. The number of wild horses on Assateague is increasing lately, resulting in overgrazed marsh and dune grasses.
Pembahasan Jawaban: is --> have been
Subject Verb Agreement: The number (plural) + have been (plural)

33. Hypnoses was successfully used during World War II to treat battle fatigue.
Pembahasan Jawaban: hypnoses (plural) --> hypnosis (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: Verb kalimat di atas berbentuk singular (was) jadi kita butuh subject yang singular (hypnosis)

34. The lobster, like many crustaceans, can cast off a damaging appendage and regenerate a new appendage to nearly normal size.
Pembahasan Jawaban: damaging (yang merusak) --> damaged (yang rusak)

35. Humans develop normally twenty primary, or deciduous, teeth and thirty-two permanent ones.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop normally --> normally develop
Verb + object: tidak boleh ada perantara antara verb dan object

36. The curricula of American public schools are set in individual states; they do not determine by the federal government.
Pembahasan Jawaban: do no determine (tidak memutuskan) --> are not determined (tidak diputuskan)
they kembali mengarah ke curricula (kurikulum)

37. The fact that the sophisticated technology has become part of revolution in travel delivery systems has not made travel schedules less hectic.
Pembahasan Jawaban: revolution --> a  revolution
uncountable noun tidak boleh berdiri sendiri tanpa adanya penjelas (termasuk article a, an, the) apakah noun itu tunggal atau jamak.

38. Balanchine's plotless ballets, such Jewels and The Four Temperaments, present dance purely as a celebration of the movement of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such --> such as (contohnya)

39. In a solar battery, a photosensitive semiconducting substance such as silicon crystal is the source of electrician.
Pembahasan Jawaban: electrician --> electricity
Dair konteks kalimat yang di maksud adalah listriknya bukan orangnya (electrician).

40. In early days, hydrochloric acid was done by heating a mixture of sodium chloride with iron sulfate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: done (dikerjakan) --> made (dibuat / dihasilkan)

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