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Sunday, February 9, 2014

Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading dan Pembahasan Jawaban: Children's Literature Development

Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading dan Pembahasan Jawaban: Children's Literature Development

After 1785, the production of children's books in the United States increased but remained largely reprints of British books, often those published by John Newbery, the first publisher to produce books aimed primarily at diverting a child audience. Ultimately, however, it was not the cheerful, commercial-minded Newbery, but Anglo-Irish author Maria Edgeworth who had the strongest influence on this period of American children's literature. The eighteenth century had seen a gradual shift away from the spiritual intensity of earlier American religious writings for children, toward a more generalized moralism. Newbery notwithstanding, Americans still looked on children's books as vehicles for instruction, not amusement, though they would accept a moderate amount of fictional entertainment for the sake of more successful instruction. As the children's book market expanded, then, what both public and publishers wanted was the kind of fiction Maria Edgeworth wrote: stories interesting enough to attract children and morally instructive enough to allay adult distrust of fiction.

American reaction against imported books for children set in after the War of 1812 with the British. A wave of nationalism permeated everything, and the self-conscious new nation found foreign writings (particularly those from the British monarchy) unsuitable for the children of a democratic republic, a slate of self-governing, equal citizens. Publishers of children's books began to encourage American writers to write for American children. When they responded, the pattern established by Maria Edgeworth was at hand, attractive to most of them for both its rationalism and its high moral tone. Early in the 1820's, stories of willful children learning to obey, of careless children learning to take care, of selfish children learning to "tire for others," started to flow from American presses, successfully achieving Edgeworth's tone, though rarely her lively style. Imitative as they were, these early American stories were quite distinguishable from their British counterparts. Few servants appeared in them, and if class distinctions had by no means disappeared, there was much democratic insistence on the worthiness of every level of birth and work. The characters of children in this fiction were serious, conscientious, self-reflective, and independent-testimony to the continuing influence of the earlier American moralistic tradition in children's books.

 1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The career of Maria Edgeworth as an author of children's books
(B) The development of children's literature in the United States
(C) Successful publishers of children's books in Britain and North America
(D) Basic differences between British and American
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) The development of children's literature in the United States
Tipe soal: Main Idea Question
Cara Jawab: Cukup lihat baris pertama setiap paragraf
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Paragraf 1: After 1785, the production of children's books in the Untied States increased but remained largely reprints of British books ....
Paragraf 2: American reaction against imported books for children set in after the War of 1812 with the British.
2. The publisher John Newbery is principally known for which of the following reasons?
(A) He produced and sold books written by Maria Edgeworth.
(B) He had more influence on children American children's literature than any other publisher
(C) He published books aimed at amusing children rather than instructing them.
(D) He was commercially minded and cheerful.
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) He was commercially minded and cheerful.
Tipe soal: Factual Information Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan -keyword: John Newbery is principally known
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1. ... often those published by John Newbery, the first publisher to produce books aimed primarily at diverting a child audience.
2. it was not the cheerful, commercial-minded Newbery, but Anglo-Irish author Maria Edgeworth who had the strongest influence on this period of American children's literature.
3. The word "notwithstanding" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) in spite of
(B) in addition to
(C) as a result of
(D) as a part of
Kunci & Pembahasan:
(A) in spite of
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
--> notwithstanding = in spite of = despite (walaupun ->kontrast)
4. The word "they" in line 9 refers to
(A) children
(B) Americans
(C) books
(D) vehicles
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban:  (B) Americans
Tipe Soal: Reference Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang diganti menjadi sebuah pronoun / siapa atau apa yang dirujuk oleh kata ganti tertentu)
Cara Jawab: Idetifikasi pronoun (kata ganti) -letak jawabannya sebelum pronoun.
-->
Newbery notwithstanding, Americans still looked on children's books as vehicles for instruction, not amusement, though they would accept a moderate amount of fictional entertainment for the sake of more successful instruction.

5. The word "allay" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(A) clarify
(B) attack
(C) reduce
(D) confirm
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) reduce
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
--> allay = reduce (mengurangi)

6. It can be inferred from the passage that American children's books sold before 1785 were almost always
(A) written by Maria Edgeworth
(B) attractive and interesting to children
(C) written by American authors
(D) intended only for religious and moral instruction
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) intended only for religious and moral instruction
Tipe Soal: Inference Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg TIDAK secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1) Jika sebuah effect dinyatakan dl passage, maka yg diujikan ialah cause. (2) Jika sebuah comparison dl passage, pertanyaan yg diujikan basis of the comparison. (3) Jika deskripsi dari new phenomenon, yg diujikan karakteristik dari old phenomenon.
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The eighteenth century had seen a gradual shift away from the spiritual intensity of earlier American religious writings for children, toward a more generalized moralism.

7. By the end of the eighteenth century, the publishers of children’s looks in the United States were most concerned about which of the following?
(A) Attracting children with entertaining stories that provided lessons of correct behavior
(B) Publishing literature consisting of exciting stories that would appeal to both children and adults
(C) Expanding markets for books in both Britain and the United States
(D) Reprinting fictional books from earlier in the century
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) Publishing literature consisting of exciting stories that would appeal to both children and adults
Tipe soal: Factual Information Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan -keyword: the end of  eighteenth century -publishers (USA) most concerned
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As the children's book market expanded, then, what both public and publishers wanted was the kind of fiction Maria Edgeworth wrote: stories interesting enough to attract children and morally instructive enough to allay adult distrust of fiction.

8. The word "permeated" in line 15
(A) opposed
(B) improved
(C) competed with
(D) spread through
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (D) spread through
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
--> permeated = spread trough (menyebar ke seluruh)

9. According to the passage, American children's stories differed from their British equivalents in that the characters in American stories were
(A) children who showed a change of behavior
(B) children who were well behaved
(C) rarely servants
(D) generally not from a variety of social classes
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (C) rarely servants
Tipe soal: Factual Information Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan -keyword: differed from
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Imitative as they were, these early American stories were quite distinguishable from their British counterparts. Few servants appeared in them ....
Few berarti hampir tidak ada atau jarang (rarely)

10. The word" testimony to" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
(A) inspiration for
(B) evidence of
(C) requirement for
(D) development of
Kunci & Pembahasan:
Kunci Jawaban: (B) evidence of
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
--> testimony to (kesasksian) = evidence of (bukti)

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