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Sunday, February 16, 2014

Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Reading : Lichens

Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading dan Pembahasan Jawaban: Lichens

Lichens, probably the hardiest of all plants, live where virtually nothing else can---not just on rugged mountain peaks but also on sunbaked desert rocks. They are usually the first life to appear on a mountainside that has been scraped bare by an avalanche. Unlike other members of the plant kingdom, lichens are actually a partnership between two plants. The framework of a lichen is usually a network of minute hairlike fungus that anchors the plant. The other component is an alga (similar to the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools) that is distributed throughout the fungus. Being green plants, algae are capable of photosynthesis--that is, using energy from the Sun to manufacture their own food. The fungi are believed to supply water, minerals, and physical support to the partnership.

Lichens are famous for their ability to survive ~ water shortage. When water is scarce (as is often the case on a mountain), lichens may become dormant and remain in that condition for prolonged periods of time. Some lichens can even grow where there is no rain at all, surviving on only occasional dew--the moisture that condenses on the surface of the plants at night. And unlike most other plants, lichens are little affected by the strong ultraviolet rays in the mountains.

Lichens use little energy, for they grow slowly. Some grow so slowly and are so old that they are called "time stains." You may find lichens that are centuries old; certain of these lichen colonies have been established for an estimated 2,000 years. For decades, scientists wondered how the offspring of an alga and a fungus got together to form a new lichen, it seemed unlikely that they would just happen to encounter one another. It was finally discovered that in many cases the two partners have never been separated. Stalklike "buds" that form on certain lichens are broken off by the wind or by animals; these toll or are blown to a new location

1. Which of the following questions does the passage answer?
(A) Where can the oldest lichen be found?
(B) How long does it take for lichens to establish themselves?
(C) How large can lichens he?
(D) Where do lichens usually occur?
Kunci Jawaban: (D) Where do lichens usually occur?
Tipe soal: Main Idea Question
Cara Jawab: Cukup lihat baris pertama setiap paragraf (juga biasa di kalimat terakhir paragraf pertama)
-->
Paragraf 1: Lichens live where virtually nothing else can
Paragraf 2: Lichens are famous for their ability to survive
Paragraf 3: Lichens use little energy

2. The word "hardiest" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) most unusual
(B) most basic
(C) most abundant
(D) most vigorous
Kunci Jawaban: (D) most vigorous
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
-> hardiest = most vigorous = strongest

3. The word "framework" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) structure
(B) fragment
(C) condition
(D)environment
Kunci Jawaban: (A) structure
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
-> framework = structure

4, The author mentions "the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools" (lines 5-6) in order to explain
(A) how the sun affects lichens
(B) why plants depend on water
(C) where fungi become algae
(D) what algae are
Kunci Jawaban: (D) what algae are
Tipe soal: Factual Information Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
--> 
he other component is an alga (similar to the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools) that is distributed throughout the fungus.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that lichens use less energy and grow more slowly when
(A) the environment is polluted
(B) they are exposed to ultraviolet rays
(C) they are very old
(D) the supply of water is inadequate
Kunci Jawaban: (D) the supply of water is inadequate
Tipe Soal: Inference Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg TIDAK secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1) Jika sebuah effect dinyatakan dl passage, maka yg diujikan ialah cause. (2) Jika sebuah comparison dl passage, pertanyaan yg diujikan basis of the comparison. (3) Jika deskripsi dari new phenomenon, yg diujikan karakteristik dari old phenomenon.
-->
Lichens are famous for their ability to survive ~ water shortage. When water is scarce (as is often the case on a mountain), lichens may become dormant and remain in that condition for prolonged periods of time.

6. Which of the following term is defined in the passage?
(A) "anchors" (line 5)
(B) "stagnant" (line 6)
(C) "dew" (line 11)
(D) "ultraviolet" (line 13)
--> dew--the moisture that condenses on the surface of the plants at night

7. The word "prolonged" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A) precise
(B) extended
(C) approximate
(D) regular
Kunci Jawaban: (B) extended
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
-> prolonged = extended = panjang (lama)

8. All of the following are mentioned in the discussion of lichens EXCEPT
(A) They are capable of producing their own food.
(B) They require large amounts of minerals to prosper.
(C) They are a union of two separate plants.
(D) They can live thousands of years.
Kunci Jawaban: (B) They require large amounts of minerals lo prosper.
Tipe soal: Factual Information Question (learner diminta u/ mengidentifikasi informasi spesifik yg secara explicit ditampilkan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: Temukan kalimat yang berisi informasi spesifik sesuai yang dinyatakan pada pertanyaan.
--> 
(paragraph 1) --> ... lichens are actually a partnership between two plants. The framework of a lichen is usually a network of minute hairlike fungus that anchors the plant. The other component is an alga (similar to the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools) that is distributed throughout the fungus. Being green plants, algae are capable of photosynthesis--that is, using energy from the Sun to manufacture their own food. The fungi are believed to supply water, minerals, and physical support to the partnership.
(paragraph 2) --> Some lichens can even grow where there is no rain at all, surviving on only occasional dew--the moisture that condenses on the surface of the plants at night. And unlike most other plants, lichens are little affected by the strong ultraviolet rays in the mountains.
(Paragrah 3) You may find lichens that are centuries old;

9. What does the phrase "lichen colonies (line 15) suggest?
(A) Nothing but lichens live in some locations.
(B) Many lichens live together in one area.
(C) Lichens displace the plants that surround them.
(D)Certain groups of lichens have never been separated.
Kunci Jawaban: (B) Many lichens live together in one area.
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
-> colony = a group of animals, insects or plants of the same type that live together

10. The word "encounter" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) lose
(B) support
(C) meet
(D) create
Kunci Jawaban: (B) Many lichens live together in one area.
Tipe Soal: Vocabulary in Context Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda mengidentifikasi arti dari kata yang digunakan dalam passage)
Cara Jawab: (1)Temukan sinonim dari kata yang dipertanyakan; (2) Jika dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat lebih dari 1 sinonim, sesuaikan makna jawaban dengan konteks kalimat
-> encounter = meet = bertemu

11. The word "these" in line 19 refers to
(A) partners
(B) buds
(C) lichens
(D) animals
Kunci Jawaban:  (B) buds
Tipe Soal: Reference Question (Pertanyaan ini menginginkan Anda untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang diganti menjadi sebuah pronoun / siapa atau apa yang dirujuk oleh kata ganti tertentu)
Cara Jawab: Idetifikasi pronoun (kata ganti) -letak jawabannya sebelum pronoun.
-->
Stalklike "buds" that form on certain lichens are broken off by the wind or by animals; these toll or are blown to a new location

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