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Friday, August 9, 2013

Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan (Reading Part IV)

Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan (Reading Part IV)

Kembali lagi membahas soal TOEFL untuk sesi reading comprehension. Semakin Anda melakukan practice insya Allah akan semakin membuka wawasan Anda terkait cara efektif dalam menjawab soal TOEFL pada bagian soal reading. Menurut kami Anda juga boleh belajar structure dari setiap reading yang ada. Anda bisa melihat, menaganalisa terkait unsur-unsur yang memenuhi kalimat. Terutama terkait letak/posisi, bentuk singular dan jamak dari penggunaan subject dan verb kalimat.

Bagi Anda yang masuk dalam situs Pusat TOEFL melalui pembahasan soal TOEFL ini, Anda bisa mengunjungi link tentang soal-soal TOEFL untuk melihat semua soal TOEFL yang telah kami posting sebelumnya.

Selalulah untuk melakukan practice dan jangan lupa untuk memahami tips trik dan strategi dalam menjawab soal-soal TOEFL dengan cepat/baik.

Soal TOEFL

In 776 B.C., the first Olympic Games were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honor the Greeks’ chief god, Zeus. The warm climate for outdoor activities, the need for preparedness in war, and their lifestyle caused the Greeks to create competitive sports. Only the elite and military could participate at first, but later the games were open to all free Greek males who had no criminal record. The Greeks emphasized physical fitness and strength in their education of youth. Therefore, contest in running, jumping, discuss and javelin throwing, boxing, and horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were greatly honored by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems sung about their deeds. Originally these contests were held as games of friendship, and any wars in progress were halted to allow the games to take place. They also helped to strengthen bonds among competitors and the different cities represented.

The Greeks attached so much importance to the games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called “Olympiads,” dating from 776 B.C. The contest coincided with religious festivities and constituted an all-out effort on the part of the participants to please the gods. Any who disobeyed the rules were dismissed and seriously punished. These athletes brought shame not only to themselves, but also to the cities they represented.

32. Which of the following is NOT true ?
A.   Winners placed olive wreaths on their own heads.
B.   The games were held in Greece every four years.
C.   Battles were interrupted to participate in the games.
D.   Poem glorified the winners in song.

33. The word “elite” in line 5 is closest in meaning to…
A.  aristocracy
B.   Brave
C.   intellectuals
D.   muscular

34. Why were the Olympic Games held?
A.   To stop wars
B.   To honor Zeus
C.   To crown the best athletes
D.   To sing songs about the athletes

35. Approximately how many years ago did these games originate?
A.   800 years
B.   1200 years
C.   2300 years
D.   2800 years

36. What conclusion can we draw about the ancient Greeks?
A.   They were pacifists
B.   They believed athletic events were important
C.   They were very simple
D.   They couldn't count, so they used “Olympiads” for dates

37. What is the main idea of this passage?
A.   Physical fitness was an integral part of the lives of the ancient Greeks
B.   The Greeks severely punished those who did not participate in physical fitness programs
C.   The Greeks had always encouraged everyone to participate in the games
D.   The Greeks had the games coincide with religious festivities so that they could go back to war when the games were over

38. In line 14, the word “deeds” is closest in meaning to…
A.   Accomplishments
B.   Ancestors
C.   Documents
D.   Property

39. Which of the following was ultimately required of all athletes competing in the Olympics?
A.   They must have completed military service.
B.   They had to attend special training sessions
C.   They had to be Greek males with no criminal record
D.   They had to be very religious

40. The word “halted” in line 16 means most nearly the same as…
A.   Encourages
B.   Started
C.   Curtailed
D.   Fixed

41. What is an “Olympiad”?
A.   The time it took to finish the games
B.   The time between games
C.   The it took to finish a war
D.   The time it took the athletes to train

Pembahasan

32. Jawaban bisa dilihat pada kalimat "Winners were greatly honored by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and ...." Dari kata by having olive wreaths placed ini menandakan ada orang ke tiga yang diperintahkan atau bertugas untuk menaruh olive wreaths di atas kepala mereka. Ingat pelajaran Causative (Have + Object + VIII). Jadi, jawaban yang benar yaitu jawaban A (Winners placed olive wreaths on their own heads).

33. "Only the elite and military could participate." Elite sudah seharusnya bukan masalah lagi bagi kebanyakan pelajar Indonesia mengingat kata ini juga digunakan dalam bahasa Indonesia  (peyerapan). Pilihan yang paling sesuai dengan kata elite yaitu aristocracy. Jadi, jawaban yang benar yaitu pilihan A (Arisctocracy).

34. "... Olympic Games were held ... to honor the Greeks’ chief god, Zeus." Dari kalimat ini dapat diketahui bahwa tujuan penyelenggararan Olympic Games yaitu to honor Zeus (B).

35. Dari kalimat pertama paragraf pertama kita lihat bahwa Olympic Game untuk pertama kalinya di adakan pada tahun 776 SM. Diantara pilihan jawaban yang ada pilihan bagian D (2, 800) tahun years merupakan pilihan yang paling dekat. Jadi, jawaban yang benar yaitu pilihan D.

36. Jawaban yang tepat yaitu pilihan B. Soal ini merupakan jenis pertanyaan interferensi. Pilihan jawaban A saalah, karena mereka juga kadang ikut dalam pertempuran. Pilihan C juga salah karena tidak ada pembahasan dalam reading mengatakan bahwa mereka simple. Juga jawaban D, tidak ada data menunjukkan bahwa mereka tidak mempu count. Karena seluruh teks di atas secara kesuluruhan membahas tentang athletic maka hanya jawaban B yang logis.

37. Jawaban yang tepat yaitu A. Dari kalimat "The Greeks emphasized physical fitness and strength in their education of youth." menandakan bahwa  "Physical fitness was an integral part of the lives of the ancient Greeks." Pilihan B tidak disebutkan dalam bacaan. Pilihan C juga salah karena hanya orang-orang tertentu yang boleh ikut dalam Olympic Games dinyatakan pada kalimat "Only the elite and military could participate at first, but later the games were open to all free Greek males who had no criminal record. " Pleasing the gods pada festival keagamaan merupakan tujuan dari penyelenggaraan perlombaan ini bukan untuk kembali pada peperangan (D).

38. Arti dari kalimat "deed" secara umum yaitu perbuatan. Dalam konteks kalimat di atas "deed" yang dimaksud yaitu accompalishment (A). 

39. Dari pilihan jawaban yang ada hanya pilihan C yang sesuai dengan bacaan. Lihat kalimat ke tiga paragraph 1 "Only the elite and military could participate at first, but later the games were open to all free Greek males who had no criminal record."

40. Jawaban benar ialah pilihan C. "Halted" paling sesui dengan makna "curtailed."

41. Jawaban yang benar yaitu pilihan B (The time between games). Bisa diketahui dari kalimat pertama paragraf 2 "The Greeks attached so much importance to the games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called “Olympiads,” dating from 776 B.C."

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