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Sunday, July 21, 2013

Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression dan Bahasan (Pre-Test Longman)

Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression dan Bahasan

Contoh keadaan ujian TOEFL Structure and Written Expression
Contoh keadaan ujian TOEFL Structure and Written Expression

Sesi Structure and Written Expression mempunyai dua tipe, PART A - Stucture dan Part B - Written Expression. Pada umumnya Anda mempunyai 25 menit untuk mengerjakan soal pada sesi ini. Jumlah soal sebanyak 40 buah.

Apa yang diujikan?

Sesi kedua, disebut juga sebagai sesi grammar, menguji kecakapan Anda terhadap standar formal aturan penulisan/grammar bahasa Inggris. Banyak aturan dapat berterima dalam percakapan (spoken) tapi tidak dalam penulisan (written). Anda harus menggunakan cara yang paling ekonomis (hemat waktu) dan matang (dengan baik) dan strategi yang terbaik dalam menjawab semua soal dalam sesi ini.

Skill apa yang harus Anda persiapkan?

Anda harus betul-betul mengetahui aturan grammar yang benar dengan baik agar Anda dapat dengan cepat mengetahui jawaban mana yang tidak sesuai dengan grammar yang formal. 

Pendekatan apa yang harus Anda gunakan untuk menjawab soal Part A - Structure?

- Ketahuilah bahwa petunjuk soal meminta Anda mengenali standar penulisan bahasa Inggris yang formal. 
- Ketahuilah bahwa Anda akan memilih satu jawaban yang paling benar untuk melengkapi jawaban. Boleh saja diantara beberapa jawaban bisa melengkapi kalimat tapi hanya ada satu yang paling benar.  

Untuk pertanyaan Part A, Anda harus:

1. Membaca semua kalimat, dan mencoba memasukkan pilihan jawaban yang tersedia. Misal masukkan terlebih dahulu pilihan jawaban A.
2. Jika jawaban A tidak benar, cobalah untuk memikirkan kenapa tidak benar.
3. Jika Anda sudah mengetahui kenapa jawaban A salah maka silahkan lanjut ke pilihan B, C, dan D.
4. Jika masih saja tidak yakin, cobalah untuk mengingat rumus dari kalimat tersebut.
5. Jika Anda tidak bisa mendapatkan jawaban yang paling benar, eliminasilah terlebih dahulu jawaban-jawaban yang jelas salah dan cobalah untuk menebak.

Contoh:
During the Daytona 500, the lead car ___________, leaving the others far behind.
A. forwarded rapidly
B. advanced rapidly
C. advanced forward rapidly
D. advanced in a rapidly manner

Analisa soal: Hal yang pertama Anda lakukan yaitu mencoba memasukkan jawaban A pada soal. Anda dapat mengetahui bahwa jawaban A salah karena kalimat soal membutuhkan kata kerja sementara jawaban A tidak memiliki kata kerja. Jika Anda yakin bahwa kata kerja advanced pada jawaban B sudah sesuai untuk mengisi kalimat di atas maka Anda tidak perlu lagi ke pilihan C dan D. Tapi jika anda kurang yakin Anda boleh lanjut ke pilhan C. Anda melihat bahwa jawaban C berlebih-lebihan karena terdapat dua kata yang mepunyai makna sama. Advance telah bermakna move forward (maju).  Sementara jawaban D kata rapidly (adverb) sebelum manner (noun) harusnya rapid (adjective) untuk membentuk suatu phrase (gabungan kata) yang benar. Ingat rumus (Adjective + Noun) bukan (Adverb + Noun). 

Pendekatan apa yang harus Anda gunakan untuk menjawab soal Part B - Written Expression?

- Lagi, ingatlah bahwa Anda sedang mencari penulisan bahasa Inggris yang benar.
- Ingatlah bahwa Anda sedang mencari kata atau frasa (gabungan kata) yang salah, yang mesti diubah agar kalimat menjadi benar.

Untuk pertanyaan Part B, Anda harus:

1. Membaca seluruh kalimat soal.
2. Jika Anda tidak menemukan jawaban yang salah dengan cepat. Maka ingatlah rumus-rumus yang Anda telah  pelajari dan pastikanlah pilihan-pilihan jawaban yang benar.

Contoh Soal I:
In the united states, there are much holidays throughout the year.
        A                         B             C                                  D                              
                                                          
Analisa jawaban: Ketika Anda membaca kalimat secara keseluruhan Anda dapat mengetahui dengan cepat bahwa much tidak sesuai dengan kata holidays. Much menandakan uncountable noun (benda tak bisa dihitung) sementara holidays dengan jelas merupakan kata benda yang bisa dihitung (countable noun).

Contoh Soal II:
Tomatoes grows all year long in Florida
           A          B   C                D

Analisa jawaban: Jika Anda menjawab dengan terburu-buru, hanya dengan melihat pilihan jawaban Anda bisa sja terkecoh dan memilih jawaban A dengan asumsi bahwa tomatoes (plural/jamak) harusnya tomato (singular/tunggal) karena kata kerja grows berbentuk tunggal. Tapi jika Anda membaca seluruh kalimat Anda akan mendapati bahwa konteks kalimat tidak mendiskusikan tentang satu tomat. Olehnya jawaban yang Anda pilih yaitu jawaban B. Grows seharusnya grow.

Strategi Menjawab Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression

Bacalah seluruh kalimat
-->
Ingatlah untuk menerapkan aturan-aturan grammar yang benar
-->
Eliminasi jawaban yang jelas salah (Part A) atau benar (Part B)

Akhir kata, semoga soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression dan bahasan di bawah ini dapat meningkatkan skor TOEFL Anda. 

Section 2 — Structure and Written Expression

This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.

Structure

Directions: Questions 1–4 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:
Example I

Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes _______ they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth's surface.

A. due to
B. because
C. in spite of
D. regardless of
The sentence should read, "Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth's surface." Therefore, you should choose answer B.

Example II

During the early period of ocean navigation, ________ any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques.

A. so that hardly
B. where there hardly was
C. hardly was
D. there was hardly
The sentence should read, "During the early period of ocean navigation, there was hardly any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques." Therefore, you should choose answer D.

Now begin work on the questions.

1. The North Pole___________ a latitude of 90 degrees north.
A. it has
B. is having
C. which is having
D. has

2. The city of Beverly Hills is surrounded on ________ the city of Los Angeles.
A. its sides
B. the sides are
C. it is the side of
D. all sides by

3. ________ greyhound, can achieve speeds up to thirty-six miles per hour.
A. The
B. The fastest
C. The fastest dog
D. The fastest dog, the

4. Marmots spend their time foraging among meadow plants and flowers or ________ on rocky cliffs.
A. gets sun
B. sunning
C. the sun
D. sunny

5. The greenhouse effect occurs ________ heat radiated from the Sun.
A. when does the Earth’s atmosphere trap
B. does the Earth’s atmosphere trap
C. when the Earth’s atmosphere traps
D. the Earth’s atmosphere traps

6. The Rose Bowl, ________ place on New Year’s Day, is the oldest postseason collegiate football game in the United States.
A. takes
B. it takes
C. which takes
D. took

7. Experiments ________ represent a giant step into the medicine of the future.
A. using gene therapy
B. use gene therapy
C. they use
D. gene therapy uses

8. ________ off the Hawaiian coastline are living, others are dead.
A. While some types of coral reefs
B. Some types of coral reefs
C. There are many types of coral reefs
D. Coral reefs

9. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark gray clouds ________ forecast rain.
A. what
B. which
C. what they
D. which they

10. Some economists now suggest that home equity loans are merely a new trap to push consumers beyond ________.
A. they can afford
B. they can afford it
C. what is affordable
D. able to afford

11. People who reverse the letters of words ________ to read suffer from dyslexia.
A. when trying
B. if they tried
C. when tried
D. if he tries

12. Featured at the Henry Ford Museum ________ of antique cars dating from 1865.
A. is an exhibit
B. an exhibit
C. an exhibit is
D. which is an exhibit

13. Rubber ________ from vulcanized silicones with a high molecular weight is difficult to distinguish from natural rubber.
A. is produced
B. producing
C. that produces
D. produced

14. ________ appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is merely an optical illusion.
A. The Moon
B. That the Moon
C. When the Moon
D. The Moon which

15. According to the World Health Organization, ________ there to be an outbreak of any of the six most dangerous diseases, it could be cause for quarantine.
A. were
B. they were
C. there were
D. were they

Written Expression

Directions: In questions 5–10, each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:

Example I
Guppies are sometimes call rainbow fish because of the males' bright colors
                                          A                   B        C                            D                                                                                    

The sentence should read, "Guppies are sometimes called rainbow fish because of the males' bright colors." Therefore, you should choose answer A.

Example II
Serving several term in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States politician.
       A                  B                                                                           C                                 D                                          

The sentence should read, "Serving several terms in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States politician." Therefore, you should choose answer B.

Now begin work on the questions.

16. On the floor of the Pacific Ocean is hundreds of flat-topped mountains more than a mile
                  A                                        B                            C                                   D                                                          
beneath sea level.

17. Because of the flourish with which John Hancock signed the Declaration of Independence,
                                                     A                                                                                                          
 his name become synonymous with signature.
 B                  C                D                                                                                                                                

18. Segregation in public schools was declare unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1954.
                                A                        B                   C                                                         D                                    
19. Sirius, the Dog Star, is the most brightest star in the sky with an absolute magnitude about
                                                        A                                                     B                                                            
twenty-three times that of the Sun.
           B                  D                                                                                                                                      

20. Killer whales tend to wander in family clusters that hunt, play, and resting together.
                              A       B                                                                              C       D                                                    

21. Some of the most useful resistor material are carbon, metals, and metallic alloys.
           A                         B                    C                                                 D                                                          

22. The community of Bethesda, Maryland, was previous known as Darcy's Store.
               A                                                                    B            C   D                                                                        

23. Alloys of gold and copper have been widely using in various types of coins.
                                                      A               B       C                 D                                                                            

24. J. H. Pratt used group therapy early in this century when he brought tuberculosis patients
                                  A                     B                              C                                                                                  
together to discuss its disease.
                                D                                                                                                                                      

25. The United States has import all carpet wools in recent years because domestic wools are
                                             A        B                                                  C                                                                
too fine and soft for carpets.
      D                                                                                                                                                              

26. Irving Berlin wrote "Oh How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning" while serving in a U.S. Army
                            A                                                                                 B                 C                                          
during World War 1.
    D                                                                                                                                                                

27. Banks are rushing to merge because consolidations enable them to slash theirs costs
                    A                                                                              B                        C                                                  
and expand.
            D                                                                                                                                                        

28. That water has a very high specific heat means that without a large temperature change
          A                                                              B                                                                                                
water can add or lose a large number of heat.
                         C                      D                                                                                                                    

29. Benny Goodman was equally talented as both a jazz performer as well as a classical
                                            A                                              B                        C             D                                                
musician.
       D                                                                                                                                                            

30. The state seal still used in Massachusetts designed by Paul Revere, who also designed
                                  A                                                  B                               C                                                            
the first Continental currency.
      D                                                                                                                                                              

31.Quarter horses were developed in eighteenth-century- Virginia to race on courses short of
                                                                                                               A                  B                                          
about a quarter of a mile in length.
                             C             D                                                                                                                          

32. No longer satisfied with the emphasis of the Denishawn School, Martha Graham has moved
            A             B                    C                                                                                       D                                      
to the staff of the Eastman School in 1925.
                                                                                                                                                                     
33. William Hart was an act best known for his roles as western heroes in silent films.
                                       A         B                     C          D                                                                                            

34. Prior to an extermination program earlier this century, alive wolves roamed across nearly all
            A                                                   B                           C                                   D                                            
of North America.
                                                                                                                                                                     

35. During the 1960s the Berkeley campus of the University of California came to national
          A                                                                                                           B                                                  
attention as a result its radical political activity.
                        C                           D                                                                                                                    

36. Artist Gutzon Borglum designed the Mount Rushmore Memorial and worked on project from
          A                                                                                                                            B                                    
1925 until his death in 1941.
            C  D                                                                                                                                                      

37. It is proving less costly and more profitably for drug makers to market directly to patients.
                                   A                        B                                           C                D                                                        

38. Sapphires weighing as much as two pounds have on occasion mined.
                            A          B                     C                                        C                                                                      

39. Like snakes, lizards can be found on all others continents except Antarctica.
        A                                         B                    C                         D                                                                            

40. Banks, savings and loans, and finance companies have recently been doing home equity
                                                                                              A                     B                                                      
loans with greater frequency than ever before.
                          C                                  D                                                                                                              

Pembahasan Jawaban:

Untuk Part A -Structure kami tidak membahasnya melalui postingan ini mengingat akan sangat membutuhkan waktu yang tidak sedikit untuk menaganalisa soal atau pilihan jawaban satu persatu. Hanya saja Anda dapat melihat sedikit pembahasan untuk Part B - Written Expression. Jika Anda ingin menanyakan pembahasan terkait soal-soal tertentu Anda boleh bergabung ke grup facebook Belajar Grammar TOEFL (UIN Alauddin Makassar).

Part A - Structure 

DDDB CCAA BCAA DBA

Part B - Written Expression + Pembahasan

16. B - are --> masuk dalam kategori Inversion. Subjek kalimat adalah hundreds of flat-topped mountains.
17. C - became --> signed (past) paralel dengan became (past) bukan become (present)
18. B - was declared --> Passive Voice (Be + VIII)
19. A - the brightest star --> Ingat aturan Comparison degree -Supelative
20. C - rest --> Hunt, play, and rest together (Harus paralel)
21. C - materials --> kata kerjanya are jadi butuh subjek yang plural. Some of ... material menandakan plural
22. B - previously --> known berbentuk sebagai adjective. (Adv + Adj). 
23. C - used --> have been + VIII
24. D - their --> their merujuk ke patients
25. A - imported --> has + VIII
26. C - the --> in the U.S. Army
27. C- their --> their + Noun. Thiers + Noun
28. D - amount --> heat menandakan uncountable noun. Amount (untuk uncountable noun) dan number (untuk countable noun)
29. C - and --> (both + and)
30. B - was designed by --> butuh kata kerja (was)
31. B - short courses --> (Adjective + Noun) bukan (Noun + Adjective)
32. D - moved --> terdapat tahun di kalimat. Maka perlu kata kerja simple past (moved) bukan has moved (past perfect)
33. A -actor --> kalimat bermaksud pelakunya (actor)
34. C - live --> alive terletak dibelakang kalimat. Live (adjective) + Noun
35. C - result of --> result + of (berpasangan)
36. B - the project --> on the project (frasa yang sudah umum)
37. B - profitable --> costly (adjective) --> profitable (adjective). Harus paralel. Profitably (adverb)
38. D - been mined --> have been + VIII
39. C - other --> other + noun. Other+ Noun
40. B - making --> pelajari perbedaan do dan make

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