Thursday, June 20, 2013

Answer Key with Explanation for the TOEFL iBT Reading (Thermoregulation)

Answer Key with Explanation for the TOEFL iBT Reading (Thermoregulation)
the TOEFL iBT Reading
1. A
"The most basic mechanism [for maintenance of warm body temperature) is the high metabolic rate. Choice B, C, and D are all ways to maintain body temperature, but they are not the most fundamental adaptation. IS. 0

2. D
"In some mammals. certain hormones can cause mitochondria 10 Increase their metabolic activity and produce heal Instead of ATP. This nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) ... ." Choice A Is not correct because thermogenesis is the activity that generates heat, not the heat loss. Choice B Is not correct because brown fat is one example of a more generalized process. Choice C is not correct because thermogenesis is a response to the environment to maintain the health of the animal, not a process that maintains the environmetn.

3.
B A passive grammatical structure In the passage Is paraphrased by an active grammatical structure In the answer choice.

4. D
In this passage, smallest is a synonym for "minimal."

5. B
"For example, heat loss from a human is reduced when arms and legs cool." Choice A is not correct because goose bumps, not heat loss in the extremities, is a vestige of our evolution. Choice C is not correct because no direct comparisons of these processes are made in the paragraph. Choice D is not correct because the types of Insulation are mentioned before the concept of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are introduced.

6. D
In this passage, control is a synonym for "regulate." Context comes from the reference to "temperature differences" at the end of the same sentence.

7.
B "The loss of heat to water occurs 50 to 100 times more rapidly than heat loss to air." Choice A Is not correct because hair loses Insulating power when wet. but the evolution of marine animals Is not mentioned. Choice C is not correct because dry hair Insulates better than wet hair. Choice D Is not correct because there are land animals that are of similar size.

8. D
" ... marine mammals maintain body core temperatures of  abot 36-38 °C with metabolic rates about the same as those [metabolic rates] of land mammals of similar size."

9. A
" . .. capable of astonishing feats of thermoregulation. For example, small birds called chickadees . . . hold body temperature nearly constant" Choice B Is not correct because the food supply supports thermoregulation  which Is the main point of the example. Choice C is not correct because chickadees are capable of astonishing feats of  thermoregulation. Choice D Is not Correct because the reason for heat production In animals Is explained before the example of the chickadee.

10.D
Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 7. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 8. Choice C Is mentioned In paragraph 6, sentences 3 and 4.

11. B
In this passage, improve Is a synonym for "enhance: Context comes from the reference to "promote" In the previous sentence.

12. A
Reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. " ." ... a layer of fur or leathers" and "how much still air the layer [of fur or feathers] traps" in the insert sentence refers to" . .. fur or feathers" and "a thicker layer of air" in the previous sentence.

13. E, C, F summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that supports major point C. Choice B is true but it is not mentioned in the passage. Choice D is a minor point that supports major point F.

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